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Transcript of Civics
Rights and Responsibilities of American Citizens -Citizenship
-First Amendment Rights UNIT 2:
The Political Process - Functions of Political Parties
-Democrats v Republicans
- Similarities and Differences
-Voting UNIT 3:
Foundations of American Government -Fundamental Political Principals
-Important Documents UNIT 4:
The Constitution -Preamble
-Articles of the Constitution UNIT 5:
Federalism UNIT 6:
Economics -Economic Basics
-Types of Market UNIT 7:
US Economy -Types of business
-Circular Flow UNIT 8: GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT -Competition in the Marketplace
-Public Goods and Services
-Coins and Currency NATURALIZATION What is Naturalization?
A test an immigrant must take
if they want to become an
American citizen. First the
person must have good moral
character, and provide information to the naturalization agent. Then they must show that they know the basics of American History and principals, they must also be able to read, write, and speak English. If they pass the test, then they take an oath and become an American citizen. CITIZENSHIP WHAT IS A CITIZEN?
A citizen is someone who is under a government, they have rights, responsibilities, duties, and are loyal to that government. The 14th amendment says you are a citizen if you're born in the United States, one of your parents is a citizen (no matter where you were born) or you can go through the Naturalization process. DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES Duties are things you are required to do by the government.
-Serve as a Witness
-Obey the Law
-Attend school Responsibilities are things that you should do to be a good citizen.
-Register and Vote
-Hold elective office
-Keep updated on current events
-Serve in voluntary positions
-Participate in political campaigns
-Respect others rights FIRST AMENDMENT RIGHTS The first amendment guarantees us rights as an American citizen.
-Freedom of Religion
-Freedom of Speech
-Freedom of the Press
-Freedom of Assembly
-Freedom of Petition VOCABULARY 14th Amendment- States were not allowed to deny equal rights under the law to any American
Naturalization- The process of becoming an American citizen
1st Amendment- Freedom of religion, speech, press, petition, and assembly
Due Process- To ensure all people are treated the same in the legal system
Duty- things you are required by law to do
Responsibility- Relied or depended on to complete a task
Patriotism- To be loyal and proud of your country
Accountability- Taking the consequences for your actions
Self-Reliance- You are able to know that you can complete a task
Trustworthiness- Able to rely on somebody or something
Honesty- Telling the truth
courtesy- being nice and respectful to someone else. VOCABULARY Electorate- Anyone who can vote
Candidate- A person running for
Political Party-A group of voters with the same interests who want to influence or control decision making in the government by electing a candidate from their party
Third Party- A party that challenges the two major parties
Propaganda- Ideas that may involve misleading messages designed to manipulate people
Political Action Committee- A political organization that is made by a corporation or a labor group designed to support candidates financially
Special Interest Groups- A group of people with the same interests who try to influence the government
Electoral College- A group of people from each state that select a president and vice president FUNCTIONS OF POLITICAL PARTIES They...
-Recruit and nominate candidates
-Educate voters about campaigning issues
-Raise money to help candidates win elections
-Monitor actions of the party in power DEMOCRATS V REPUBLICANS SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES THIRD PARTIES Third parties introduce new ideas, revolve around a political person, although they rarely win, they take votes away from main candidates. They rarely win because they can't afford it. Campaign Finance What does it take (financially) to run for president? • Candidates have to raise their own money by holding fundraisers , it especially costs a lot if you're running for president.
• Since it costs so much to run only a few people have the opportunity to run for a high public office
• This gives an advantage to wealthy people who want to run for president (Mitt Romney)
• But since not everyone's wealthy many candidates rely on PACs (political action committees) to raise money for them.
• Candidates also want special interest groups to donate money because they have increased influence. ELECTORAL COLLEGE Electoral College; How does it
State electors are chosen by
every state by popular vote
The electors meet to vote for
president and vice president
Most states have a winner take
all system. Since this in place the
candidates want to target largely populated states
The more people in the state the more electors
The greater the population, the more electors your state have
The requirements for a majority vote to win leads to a two-party system
This is why third parties usually don't win VOTING Voting is a way to influence your government. But to vote in Virginia you must be a citizen of the United States, resident of Virginia, and precinct. You have to be at least 18 on the day of general elections, and you must register in person at the DMV, or by mail 22 days before the elections. Some common factors that determine which citizens will vote are education, age, and income. VOCABULARY Consent of the Governed- the government can only do things that the people allow it to
Limited Government- A government's power has limits and it cannot violate the rights of a citizen
Democracy- the people run the government and vote on the issues
Majority Rule- The popular vote wins
Minority Rights0 Even if the majority rules, the people who voted for the minority still have their rights as a citizen
Rule of Law- the law applies to everyone, and must be obeyed by all people, even government POLITICAL PRINCIPALS CONSENT OF THE GOVERNED- This is the idea that the government exists to secure the rights of the people. It also says that the people can elect representatives to establish their own government.
LIMITED GOVERNMENT- The idea of limited government is that no one is above the law, including the president. This means that the government works for the people and, this helps protect the unalienable rights of the citizens.
RULE OF LAW- This is a system that the law applies to and must be obeyed by everyone. Even the head of the state or country, or a government official.
DEMOCRACY- Democracy is the form of government that is ruled by the people, and for the people. Citizens get to vote on their leaders and representatives, the majority vote rules. The government also cannot take away people's basic rights.
REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT- This is the idea that the people self govern themselves. They do this by electing people to represent them through elections. IMPORTANT DOCUMENTS The Mayflower Compact 1620- Established direct democracy and it stated the majority would rule
The Magna Carta 1215- Limited power of the monarch, its rights included equal treatment of the law and trial by one's peers
The Virginia Declaration of Rights- a model for the Bill of Rights
Charters of the Virginia Company of London- Rights of Englishmen guaranteed to colonists
Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom- Citizens can choose what religion to practice and can have whatever opinion they want
Articles of Confederation- was the first form of national government in the independent states, major powers resided with individual states. Weakness of central government
Declaration of Independence- stated grievances against the king of Great Britain, declared the independence from Great Britain, secured certain unalienable rights, and established the idea that all people are under the law PREAMBLE "We the people, in order to form a more perfect union establish justice and ensure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare and, secure the blessings of liberty, for ourselves and out posterity. Do ordain and establish this Constitution, for the United States of America." "We the people of the United States" This is for the people of our country, and not just for a King or a small group of people.
"...in order to form a more perfect Union…" To make our country better.
"…establish justice…" Make sure everybody is treated fairly.
"… ensure domestic tranquility…" To have a peaceful country.
"… provide for the common defense…" To provide a military to protect the citizens.
"…promote the general welfare…" Healthy and happy citizens.
"… secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity." This isn't just for the people that wrote it, it's for everyone to come
"… do ordain and establish this Constitution, for the United States of America." This says that this is for the United States. What does this mean? AMENDMENTS Amendments are changes to the constitution. Amendments can be proposed by a vote of 2/3 of the members of both houses of congress or by a national convention called at the request of 2/3 of the state legislatures. For an amendment to be ratified it must have the approval of 3/4 of the state legislatures or can be ratified by 3/4 of the ratifying conventions. The first 10 amendments to the Constitution are called the Bill of Rights. ARTICLES OF THE CONSTITUTION Article l: Establishes the power s of the legislative branch of government at the national level. The legislative branch is divided into house of representatives and the senate. It also states the qualifications to hold office in the senate or the house, and also what it can cannot do.
Article ll: Establishes the powers of the executive branch of the national government. This is the President. It states the requirements of becoming president, it says what the president can and cannot do, and in what circumstances the president can be impeached.
Article lll: Establishes the powers of the judicial branch at the national level. Any law the supreme court makes is the law and cannot be over turned, it also states the requirements in becoming a justice, and a justice must be appointed by president and approved by the senate.
Article lV: Powers and limits to states
Article V: How the Constitution can be amended
Article Vl: Establishes the constitution as the law of the land
Article Vll: When the constitution was written nine of the thirteen states had to approve it for it to be ratified. - Checks and Balances
-Fairfax County Executive Branch
-Fairfax County Judicial Branch
-Fairfax County Legislative Branch CHECKS AND BALANCES Used by the government to ensure one branch doesn’t become more powerful than another branch
Powers over executive branch (overrides vetoes), and judicial branch (approves federal judges)
Legislative branch (vetoes acts of congress) Judicial branch (appoints federal judges)
Legislative branch (declares laws unconstitutional) Executive branch (declares executive acts unconstitutional) EXECUTIVE BRANCH
Fairfax county executive branch: appointed by board of supervisors, office plays a key role in planning, preparing annual budget etc.
-The governor: elected 4-year term, appoints members of cabinet, cannot serve two consecutive terms
-The lieutenant governor: elected 4-year term, elected separately from the governor, no term limits, president of the senate,
-Attorney general: elected 4-year term, responsible for representing the legal interests of Virginia, gives legal advice
-The governor's cabinet
Federal executive branch: executes the law of the land, prepares annual budget, appoints cabinet officers, ambassadors, federal judges, administers federal bureaucracy JUDICIAL BRANCH - VIRGINIA COURT SYSTEM:
- General district court: judge, misdemeanors, civil cases less then $4,500, juvenile and domestic relations court
- Circuit court: judge and jury, criminal cases, civil cases $4,500 or more, appellate jurisdiction
- Court of appeals of Virginia: no judge or jury, appellate jurisdiction
- Virginia supreme court: justices no jury, court of final appeal, limited original jurisdiction
- UNITED STATES COURT SYSTEM:
- United states supreme court: judge with jury, original jurisdiction
- United states court of appeals: judges no jury, appellate jurisdiction
- United states supreme court: justices no jury, appellate and limited original jurisdictions LEGISLATIVE BRANCH -powers are given to them by the general assembly
-Board of supervisors: establishes county government, approves the budget, establishes tax rates, approves land use
-The general assembly: a bicameral legislature, the house of delegates, and the Virginia senate, meets annually
-Primary issues: education, public health, environment, state budget VOCABULARY Federalism: a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant
Judicial: the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state
Executive: The executive is the part of government that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state
Legislative: A legislature is a kind of deliberative assembly with the power to pass, amend, and repeal laws
Public Policy: government action is generally the principled guide to action taken by the administrative or executive branches
Bicameral: essential and defining feature of the classical notion of mixed government
Supreme Court: The highest court in the United States
Congress: the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two houses: the lower house known as the House of Representatives and the upper house known as the Senate
Senate: the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives makes up the United States Congress
House of Representatives: one of the two houses of the United States Congress
Implied Powers:powers authorized by a legal document (from the Constitution)
Reserved Powers:Power given to the states
Concurrent Powers: Powers shared by both the state and federal government
Expressed Powers: powers congress has specifically stated in the constitution
10th Amendment: the powers not designated by the U.S. constitution are reserved for the states VOCABULARY Choice- An act of selecting or making a decision when making a decision when faced with two or more possibilities.
Command economy- An economy in which production, investment, prices, and incomes are determined centrally by a government.
Competition- An event or contest in which people compete.
Consumer sovereignty- which expresses the opinion that consumers determine the production of goods.
Consumer/consumption- A person to purchase goods and services for personal use.
Free market- An economic system in which prices are determined by unrestricted competition between privately owned business.
Incentives- a thing that motivates or encourages one to do something.
Mixed economy- An economic system combing private and public enterprise.
Opportunity cost- The loss of potential gain from other alternatives when one alternative is chosen.
Price- the amount of money expected, required, or given in payment for something.
Producer/production- A person, company, or country that makes, grows, or supplies goods or commodities for sale.
Natural resources- Materials or substance such as minerals, forests, water, and fertile land that occur in nature and can be used for economic gain.
Human resources- The department of a business or organization that deals with the administration, management, and training of personnel.
Capital resources- human-made goods, tools, machines and buildings used to produce other goods and services.
Intermediary resources- Material or item that is a final-product of a process, but is also used as an input in the production process of some other good.
Entrepreneur- a person who organizes and operates a business or business, taking on a financial risk to do so.
Scarcity- a small and inadequate amount.
Supply- a stock of a resource from which a person of place can be provided with the necessary amount of that resource.
Demand- an insistent and premptory request, made as if by right.
Profit- A financial gain, the difference between the amount spent in buying, operating, or producing something. ECONOMIC BASICS Choice- selecting an item or action from a set of possible alternatives Demand- The amount of a good or service that consumers are willing and able to buy at a certain price
Supply & Demand- the interaction between supple and demand determines the price
Opportunity Cost- What is given up when a choice is made Scarcity- The inability to satisfy all wants at the same time
Consumption- Someone who uses goods or services Price- The amount of money exchanged for a good or service Incentives- Are things that persuade us to buy a product Production- Combining resources to make goods and provide services Supply- The amount of a good or service that producers are willing and able to sell at a certain price TYPES OF MARKETS TRADITIONAL:
-Found in rural, and under developed countries
-Pygmies of Congo
-Eskimos & Indian tribes
-Customs govern the economic decisions that are made
ADVANTAGES: People have specific roles; security in the way things are done.
DISADVANTAGES: Technology is not used and difficult to improve. MARKET:
-Also called a Free Market Economy or Free Enterprise Economy
-Businesses and consumers decide what they will produce and purchase and in what quantities
-Supply and demand of goods and services determine what is produced and the price that will be charged
ADVANTAGES: Competition to have the best products and services
DISADVANTAGES: huge gap between the wealthy and the poor COMMAND:
-The government (or central authority) determines what, how, and for whom goods and services are produced.
Strong Command- where government makes all decisions (communism- China, Cuba)
Moderate Command- where some form of private enterprise exists but the state owns major resources (socialism- France and Sweden)
-Guarantees equal standard of living for everyone (in theory)
-Less crime and poverty (in theory)
-Needs are provided for through the government (in theory)
-Fewer choices of items
-No incentive to produce better product or engage in entrepreneurship MIXED:
-A combination of a market and a command economy
-Government takes care of people's needs
-Marketplace takes care of people's wants
-Balance of needs and wants met by government and in marketplace
- Citizens have to pay taxes VOCABULARY Proprietorship- an unincorporated business owned by a single person who is responsible for its liabilities and entitled to its profits.
Partnership- an association of two or more people as partners.
Corporation- an association of individuals, created by law or under authority of law, having a continuous existence independent of the existences of its members, and powers and liabilities distinct from those of its members. See also municipal corporation, public corporation.
Entrepreneur- a person who organizes and manages any enterprise, especially a business, usually with considerable initiative and risk.
Circular Flow- a simple economic model which describes the reciprocal circulation of income between producers and consumers.
Banks- a place that holds your money.
Savings and Loans- An institution that accepts savings at interest and lends money to savers chiefly for home mortgage loans and may offer checking accounts and other services.
Credit Unions- A nonprofit-making money cooperative whose members can borrow from pooled deposits at low interest rates. TYPES OF BUSINESS Proprietorship- A form of business organization with one owner who takes all the risks and profits Partnership- a form of business with two or more owners who share all the risks and profits. The owners are the only ones authorized to administer and represent the partnership, and they are liable for the debts and obligations of the partnership. Corporation- a form of business organization that is authorized to act as a single legal person reguardless of the number of owners. Owner liability is limited to investment. A corporation is a legal entity which continues even if someone dies or transfers shares of stock. Entrepreneurship- A person who takes a risk to produce goods and services in search of a profit GLOBAL ECONOMY - Virginia and the United States pursue international trade in order to increase wealth
- Worldwide markets in which the buying and selling of goods and services by all nations take place
-We trade to obtain goods and services they cannot produce or produce efficiently themselves
- To buy goods and services at a lower cost
-To sell goods goods and services to other countries
-Create jobs CIRCULAR FLOW Circular flow is a representation of income that refers to a simple economic model that describes the circulation of income between producers and consumers. In the circular flow model, the inter-dependent entities of producer and consumer are referred to as "firms" and "households" and provide each other with factors in order to facilitate the flow of income. COMPETITION IN THE MARKETPLACE The government promotes and regulates competition. But they also enforce anti-trust legislation to discourage the development of monopolies. They engage in global trade, and support business start-ups.
Government Agencies that Regulate Business:
Federal Communication Commission
Environmental Protection Agency
Federal trade Commission
These agencies oversee the way individuals and companies do business. PUBLIC GOODS AND SERVICES The government provides public goods and services that individuals acting alone could not provide efficiently.
These services provide benefits to many simultaneously.
They wouldn't be available if individuals had to provide them.
The government pays for these through tax revenue, borrowed funds, and fees (park entrance fees etc.) TAXATION -The government taxes, borrows, and spends money to influence the economy.
-Government tax increase, reduces funds available for private and business spending.
-Tax decreases, increase funds for private and business spending.
-Increases government spending= increase in demand, which may increase employment and production.
-Decreases government spending= reduces demand, which may result in a slowing of the economy.
-Increased government spending= higher taxes
-Decreased government spending= lower taxes
16th Amendment allows the government to tax. FEDERAL RESERVE COINS AND CURRENCY VOCABULARY Competition- the rivalry among sellers trying to achieve such goals as increasing profits, market share, and sales volume
Antitrust- Of or relating to legislation preventing or controlling trusts or other monopolies, with the intention of promoting competition between business
Federal Communications Commission- an independent government agency that regulates inter states and international communications by radio and television
Environmental Protection Agency- an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
Federal Trade Commission- an independent agency of the federal government that maintains fair and free competition
Examples of Goods and Services provided by the Government- Services: Postal Service
Goods: Interstate highway
How the government pays for goods and services: TAXES
16th Amendment- allows the federal government to levy an income tax from all Americans
Federal Reserve- the federal banking authority in the US that performs the functions of a central bank
Consumer Protection- these laws are designed to ensure fiat competition and the free flow of truthful information in the marketplace
United States Mints- the mint that manufactures and distributes United States coins for circulation through Federal Reserve Banks
United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing- government agency that makes all paper currency
United States Department of Treasury- the federal department that collects revenue and administers federal finances Unit 9:
Career Development - Graphic Organizer GRAPHIC ORGANIZER VOCABULARY Initiative- the ability to asses and indicate things independently
Timeliness- being able to manage your time wisely
Responsibility- the state or fact of a duty to deal with something
Income- money received on a regular basis
Globalization- growth to a global or worldwide scale
Specialization- making something suitable for a special purpose
Self- Assessment- the evaluation of your own achievements, failures and abilities CONGRATULATIONS!
you have survived 8th grade Civics!