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Keys to Success

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by

Betty Kampouri

on 2 July 2015

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Transcript of Keys to Success

Introduction and Agenda
Role of School Psychologists
Legislation
Assessment and Accountability
Culture/Communication
Home-school connections and advocacy

Home-School Connections
Connections made between home and school allow for the development of effective programs
Allows parents to gain insight on their child's outcomes in school
Allows teachers to gain an understanding of the student's home life and culture
Role of School Psychologists
Advocate for ELL students and their families
Collaborate with teachers, parents, and administrators to make sure ELL students are being provided with necessary services
Assess the academic needs of these students by choosing and administering appropriate evaluations
Legislation Affecting ELLs' Education
Federal and state laws exist that guide the education of ELL students.
Such laws ensure that the constitutional rights of ELL students are met, and that they are provided with appropriate support that enables them to access educational opportunities.
Various pieces of legislation are crucial to understand in order to effectively support ELL students educationally.

Assessment and Accountability
Agenda:
Test Activity (handout)
Assessment
General Assessment Concerns
Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement
Exiting the second language program and After
Language Difficulty versus Learning Disability
Accountability
Problems with Standardized Testing for ELLs
Accommodations appropriate for ELL students
Impact of Culture on Education
Keys to Success:
Thank you!
Working with ESOL Students
General Assessment Concerns
Assessment of Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement
Exiting the second language program and After
Language Difficulty and Learning Disability
Unless there are proven reliabilities and validities attached to your assessments, the data are not meaningful, resulting in inappropriate or erroneous decisions about students

Information gathered on ELLs should always be pooled from multiple sources and levels

For example, the BASIC model creates a comprehensive profile of student learning utilizing information from many sources and levels (as seen below)

Language Proficiency
Assessment of ELLs should include measures of both English and the native language.
English because it forms the basis of programmatic and instructional decisions
Native because it provides a baseline for placement and planning purposes

Native language proficiency tools are in the development phase. They should be systematic, reliable and agreed upon by those implementing them.

Academic Achievement
Assessment needs to be assessed in the classroom and at a large-scale context
Assessment should be done in the language of instruction
It should be embedded in instruction, motivating, and performance based (not a separate activity or test at the end of a unit)
This way students can use multiple resources to access content and create meaning


Civil Rights Act, 1964
All students in U.S. schools must be provided with equal educational opportunities.
As educators, we must ensure that ELLs have the necessary support (including language support) to access educational opportunities.

Lau v. Nichols, 1974
Student (Lau) was unable to access academic content due to limited English proficiency (LEP).
Supreme court ruled that identical education does not mean equal education based on the Civil Rights Act.
Schools are required to actively meet the educational needs of ELLs (i.e., by implementing bilingual or ESL programs).


Legislation
Legislation
Before reviewing some relevant legislation, lets
Think, Pair, Share!
What laws and legislation are you already familiar with that have implications for the education of ELL students?
Castaneda v. Pickard, 1981
Established three criteria to determine whether schools were complying in providing ELL students with appropriate programing to facilitate second language acquisition.
1.
Theory-
A program must be implemented that is
based on “sound educational theory” or
“legitimate experimental program design”.
2.
Practice-
Schools must implement the program
and provide necessary personnel and practices
to implement the program.
3.
Results-
Results must be attained or the
program should be altered.

Plyler v. Doe, 1982
Schools cannot deny students who are not legal residents of the U.S. access to education.



(The Education Alliance at Brown University, n.d.)
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
Most recent reauthorization of The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
Provides federal funds dependent on adherence to educational guidelines
1968 ESEA Title VII (Bilingual Education Act): mandated that language support programming must be provided to ELLs, and authorized funding for programs such as bilingual education and ESL.
Title VII was replaced in 2001 with Title III, "Language instruction for Limited English Proficient and Immigrant Students”

No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
Schools are accountable for the academic achievement and English language proficiency (ELP) of ELLs.
Schools must use English language proficiency assessments to measure ELP.
Proficiency defined: meeting proficient level of achievement on state assessments, achieving in an English instruction classroom, and participating fully in society.

NCLB
Tittle III
School districts must develop annual performance goals (measurable achievement objectives) based on increases in the number of ELLs in learning English, attaining English proficiency, and passing mandated state reading and math tests.

ELLs must be included in accountability systems and make “adequate yearly progress” in meeting academic content standards and in becoming English proficient.



NCLB
States must develop ELP proficiency standards and an assessment system
Assessment system must reflect students'
social and academic
language development
In assessing language proficiency, the following criteria must be met:
Four language domains must be assessed: listening, speaking, reading, and writing
Assessment must be based on academic content standards
Assessment must reflect the language of language arts and math
Descriptive performance levels must be defined.

NCLB
Students with Limited English Proficiency
Can be provided with appropriate accommodations when taking assessments
Examples of possible accommodations include: extra time, native-language assessments, small group administration, use of dictionaries, audiotaped instructions in native language
(Yell & Drasgow, 2005).

Accommodations may be effective in making the tests more accessible to ELL students (Hamayan & Freeman Field, 2012).

The Florida Consent Decree
Addresses the civil rights of ELL students, including their right to equal access to all education programs.
Delineates provisions that safeguard the implementation of comprehensible instruction.

Addresses six areas
:
Identification and Assessment
Equal Access to Appropriate Programing
Equal Access to Appropriate Categorical and Other Programs for ELL students
Personnel
Monitoring Issues
Outcome Measures

Implications for School Psychologists
In providing school-based services, school psychologists should reflect fair and nondiscriminatory practices (William & Armistead, 2011).
School psychologists should act as advocates for laws that prohibit discriminative practices in school (William & Armistead, 2011).

NCLB
School psychologists may improve school test performance by:
Consulting with teachers
Understanding the design and implementation of research by promoting high-quality, evidence-based instructional practices
Ensuring ELLs are receiving scientifically-based reading instruction
Assessing students', school, and district needs


Culture within schools and classrooms is an extension of mainstream cultural values and cultural orientations.

Consider how the following dimensions* of culture influence a country's education system, schools, and individual classrooms:
Individualist/Collectivist
Power distance and hierarchy
Notions of competition and collaboration
Notions of time and orientation to past/present/future
Comfort with ambiguity
Indulgence vs. Restraint

*see Hofstede, G. (2011)
Activity!
First, we are going to do an activity

Please complete the short quiz, which can be found in your handouts

Quiz Answers:

After completing the activity, discuss in small groups the following questions:
How many of you scored better than 80%?
What are your reactions to the assessment?
What can you take away from this activity relating to assessment of ELL students?

Environmental Expressions of Culture
Classroom set up/structure
Identification with classroom materials (are other languages and cultures visibly represented?)
Level of identification with peers or educators in the classroom


What previous experiences have you had working with culturally diverse students? What were some cultural differences you identified?

As you are discussing your previous experiences, consider the iceberg of culture pictured here. What deeper cultural elements were likely at play/under the surface in your interactions with these students?

Turn and Talk
Recommended Exit Guidelines
2nd language learning takes time
Exit policies should be flexible and accommodating
Exit policies should not have strict time mandates (ex: 1 year)
ELLs will still need support after they exit
Exit criteria and policies must account for oral skills, literacy skills, and content specific areas

And after ELLs have exited the programs...
It may take 5-7 years for ELLs to catch up to their fluent English speaking peers
Once ELLs exit the program, standard curriculum teachers must have the skills to provide continuing support to the ELLs

Factors influencing the problem-solving team’s effectiveness:
An ELL’s difficulty cannot be a disability when it is observed only in the student’s 2nd language
There needs to be continued professional development for all school staff around topics related to ELLs
ELL students must receive appropriate literacy instruction

How to help
Invite the students languages and cultures into the classroom, from the principal to the teacher
Staff should have training on language literacy and understanding the relationship between 1st and 2nd language literacy

Federal and State laws define how English language proficiency is to be assessed (2001, Elementary and Secondary Education Act)
Must represent the 4 language domains (listening, speaking, reading and writing)
Be anchored in academic content standards
Reflect the language of language arts and math
Define descriptive performance levels

Elementary and Secondary Education Act mandates assessments in language arts and math must occur but there are few national standards-references tests that are available in spanish and other languages
For this reason, even when ELL students are allowed to have longer time, use dictionaries, or receive instructions orally students still can’t show what they know and what they can do until they reach a certain level of English proficiency
So these results are meaningless and not very valid
Teacher assessment information is critical
Benefits of Home-School Connection
Strong connection between home and school have been shown to improve ELL students':
Grades
Self-esteem
Attendance
Attitude towards school
Teacher-Parent Collaboration
By collaborating with parents, teachers can share strategies and activities that parents can use at home in order to foster learning
Teachers can choose these strategies based on the parents' level of acculturation
Goals can be set both at home and at school
How to get parents involved
Organize school events for parents to attend
Offer workshops for parents
Encourage participation in school-related volunteer groups (PTA, mentors, coaching, etc.)
Advocating for your students!
Know what resources are available
Know the rights of the students
Educate parents, teachers, and administrators
Ensure that students are receiving the most effective instruction
Ways to Advocate
Collaborate with administrators to ensure that the current policies are fair
Stay connected with parents and teachers
Encourage a welcoming school community
Monitor programs and encourage modifications when necessary
(Hamayan & Freeman Field, 2012)
(Hamayan & Freeman Field, 2012)
(Hamayan & Freeman Field, 2012)
In addition to the problems other students face, ELLs have additional concerns
Standardized tests are generally multiple-choice, which fail to measure critical thinking
Students who understand math, may still do poorly if the math section uses language they do not know
Tests may contain cultural bias, that is items require background knowledge of a culture to answer correctly
Subject area tests have less accuracy for ELLs than other students
Native language assessment may not be available for students who need it

Problems with Standardized Testing for ELLs
Accommodations appropriate for ELL students
Accommodations should be effective, valid, have differential impact, feasible, and relevant
Consider the students background characteristics
Consider the ease or difficulty of implementing the accommodation

Examples of Good Accommodations:
Bilingual Version of the Test
English/Bilingual Glossary
Customized English/Bilingual Dictionary
Linguistically Modified Assessment
Computer Accommodation

Workshop Objectives

Identify the role of the school psychologist in ensuring English Language Learners’ (ELL) success.
Explore legislation affecting ELLs’ education and understand implications for school psychologists working with ELL populations.
Connect relevant legislation to the implementation of common core standards in working with ELL populations.
Identify and apply best practices in assessment and accountability when working with ELL populations.
Examine the impact that culture has on schooling.
Examine the impact of cultural differences and communication styles in working with ELL populations and identify strategies to communicate effectively across cultures.
Demonstrate the importance of home-school connections and advocating for ELL populations.

Mini Case Studies
As you consider the 2 case studies in small table groups, answer the following questions.
What might be some cultural explanations for some of these students’ behaviors?
What might these students' cultural expectations regarding school and teachers be?
What are the dangers of misinterpreting student behaviors if you don’t consider them through a cultural lens?
What are some strategies you might utilize inside or outside of the classroom to address or better understand the relevant cultural differences?
Case Study Student 1
An ELL student sits quietly in class every day. He never asks questions even if it seems he doesn’t understand the material. He has reached the intermediate fluency stage of language acquisition, but he still doesn’t express himself or engage actively in class. His teacher tries to coax him into more active participation in class, but he seems to continue to resist the teacher’s efforts to get him to contribute.
Case Study
Student 2
An ELL student seems to always be acting out, never staying seated behind her desk and repeatedly disrupting other students as they are working. She doesn’t seem to pay attention or be motivated to work independently even when the teacher utilizes interactive games with prizes promised for the winner.
Observe and record individual student responses to classroom events or situations,
Develop and administer questionnaires about student beliefs and expectations,
Conduct formal and informal interviews,
If using standardized assessments, determine if the norm group is culturally/linguistically appropriate,
Request life histories and biographies,
Maintain awareness that no two individuals from the same culture will have the same cultural and individual experience,
What else did you discuss? Please share!
Strategies to Understand Students' Cultural and Individual Experience
Culture & Curricula
Student learning is greatly enhanced when cultural knowledge and previous experiences are activated through the curriculum.
Accessibility of mainstream curriculum may be limited if curricular materials only represent dominant U.S. culture.
Dominant cultural messages and value systems may be embedded in school curricula ways that at first seem subtle, but are in fact profound.
ELLs and mainstream students all benefit from the inclusion of diverse cultural perspectives and authentic application of learning.
Communication Across Cultures
Begin with cultural self-awareness and recognition that others may have differing perspectives:
A collaboration by:
E. Kampouri, K. Laboe, T. LaPuma, and A. Schrack

Timeline of Important Legislation
Let's Review!
Match the statements in the first column to the law in the second column that they best describe.
1. During this court case, the Supreme Court
ruled that identical education does not mean
equal education. The needs of ELLs must be
actively met.
2. Established 3 criteria to determine whether
ELLs are being provided with appropriate
programing.
3. All students, including ELLs must be
provided with equal educational
opportunities.
4. Delineates provisions that safeguard the
implementation of comprehensible
instruction for ELL students in the state of
Florida.
5. Students who are illegal residents of the U.S.
cannot be denied access to education.
6. Mandates that schools are accountable for
the academic achievement and language
proficiency of ELL students.

a. Civil Rights Act of 1964
b. No Child Left Behind Act
of 2001
c. Castaneda v. Pickard,
1981
d. Plyler v. Doe, 1982
e. The Florida Consent
Decree
f. Lau v. Nichols, 1974

Answers
1. F
2. C
3. A
4. E
5. D
6. B
(Hamayan & Freeman Field, 2012)
(Hamayan & Freeman Field, 2012)
(Florida Department of Education, n.d.)
(National Association of School Psychologists, 2006; Reading Rockets, 2005)

References
Boix Mansilla, V., & Jackson, J. (2011).
Educating for Global Competence: Preparing Our Youth to Engage with the World.
New York, NY: Asia Society. Retrieved from: http://asiasociety.org/globalcompetence

Florida Department of Education (n.d.). Consent Decree. Retrieved from http://www.fldoe.org/academics/eng-language-learners/consent-decree.stml

Hamayan, E., & Freeman Field, R. (2012) (Eds.). English language learners at school. Second edition. Philadelphia, PA: Caslon.

Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context. In Online Readings in Psychology and Culture. 2 (1). The Berkeley Electronic Press. Retrieved from: http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/orpc/vol2/iss1/8

Kranzler, J. H., & Floyd, R. G. (2013).
Assessing intelligence in children and adolescents: A practical guide.
New York: The Guilford Press.

National Association of School Psychologists (2006). School psychologists and student reading achievement. NASP Communique, 35(2). Retrieved April 17, 2015, from http://www.nasponline.org/publications/cq/cq352achieve_ho.aspx

Reading Rockets (2005). School psychologists and student reading achievement. Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/38/

Sue, D. W. & Sue, D. (2013).
Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice
(6th Ed). Hoboken, NJ. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

The Education Alliance at Brown University (n.d.). Teaching Diverse Learners. Retrieved from http://www.brown.edu/academics/education-alliance/teaching-diverse-learners/policy

The Hofstede Center. http://geert-hofstede.com

William, B. B., & Armistead, L. (2011). Applying law and ethics in professional practice. In T. M. Lionetti, E. P. Snyder, & R. W. Christner (Eds.), A practical guide to building professional competencies in school psychology (14-33). New York: Springer.

“The single biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place.”
George Bernard Shaw

Recognize Own &
Others' Perspectives
Cross-Cultural
Communication Competencies
Increase self-awareness
of cultural values & communication styles
What non-verbal and verbal messages do you send?
What do you consider to be "normal" communication patterns and how are these culturally informed? (i.e. mode of communication, timing and frequency of communication, physical proximity during communication)
Recognize validity
of differing cultural understandings and values
Value and empathize
with different cultural perspectives
Country/culture specific information on Hofstede's cultural dimensions available: The Hofstede Center http://geert-hofstede.com/
Create opportunities for
diverse modes of communication
that will be culturally and practically accessible for ELLs and their families
Inclusive of providing L1 interpreters as needed
Have
humility and flexibility
in multicultural communication with ELL students and their families
“Two people can see the same thing,
disagree
, and yet
both be right
.”
-Stephen Covey

High Context & Low Context Communication Styles
Self-Awareness
biases
beliefs
values
gender
religion
politics
SES
spirituality
expectations
academic level
disability status
How do these cultural and personal factors combine to create the lens through which you react to and interpret behaviors and communication?

What other factors impact the way you express ideas and structure communication?

sexual orientation
upbringing and family structure
previous experiences
race
ethnicity
High Context Communication
Non-verbals/context have paramount importance
Less emphasis on actual verbalizations
Message is anchored in physical context/internalized in the person

Low Context Communication
Direct verbal messages have paramount importance
Literal face value of message means more than non-verbals or context

Watch video:

Discuss
If you are a low context communicator, what strategies would you use in communicating with a high context communicator?

Conversely, if you are a high context communicator, what strategies would you use in communicating with a low context communicator?

How will you manage your reaction to an interlocutor or "suspend judgment" as the video suggests in order to achieve successful communication across divergent styles?
Answers to the Quiz
Question 1: a
Question 2: c
Question 3: c
Question 4: c
Hamayan & Feeman Field, 2012, p. 81
Full transcript