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Radar Technology

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Arvonna Wolfenbarger

on 2 April 2014

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Transcript of Radar Technology

BEHAVIORS OF RADAR BEAMS
What it is
A radar is a system for detecting the presence, direction, distance, and speed of aircraft, ships, and other objects, by sending out pulses of high-frequency electromagnetic waves that are reflected off the object back to the source.
Radar is an acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging.
Radars achieve this by using
Doppler shift
and
echo
. These are utilized through radio waves.
Clutter and MTI
MTI
- Moving Target Indicators
Incoherent Scatter Radar
Used in conjunction with the scattering of electromagnetic waves by random variations in a gas of particles.
Variations caused by:
Ion temperature
Mass distribution
Motion
Allows the measurement of the Earth's ionosphere.
Radar Can Measure:
Pressure
Number of electrons that can scatter radio waves is measured by the echo strength received.
Temperature
Radar acts like a thermometer because of scatter echo.
Wind Speed
Electron/ion mixture which is in motion - plasma
Radar Technology
New Jersey Audubon,
What is Radar
, WWW Document, (http://www.njaudubon.org/SectionOases/Whatisradar.aspx).
Doppler Shift and Echo

Doppler shift
is when a sound is reflected off of, or produced by, a moving object.
Echo
occurs when sound waves ricochet off of a surface.
Sonar - SOund NAvigation Ranging
Done by emitting energy and sensing the echo signal returning from an object.
Basic System
Includes transmitter, switch, receiver, data recorder, processor, a display, and the antenna.
Pulse is relayed by a transmitter to the switch, guiding it to be transmitted out of an antenna. After this, the switch begins to control the receiver, allowing the antenna to receive signals being echoed back. When those signals are received, the switch gains control of the transmitter again to send another signal.
http://www.ig.utexas.edu/research/projects/mars/education/radar_works.htm

PRT/PRF
Occasionally, transmitters do not send pulses in rhythmic patterns. Rather, they put them out in brief pulses with a set time in between each one.
PRT
- Pulse Repetition Time: the time lapse betwixt each pulse.
PRF
- Pulse Repetition Frequency: the amount of pulses emitted in one second.
PW
- (pulse width(duration)): how long it takes for a pulse to be transferred.
penetration
Frequency modulation is when it changes.
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/483303/pulse-radar
Basic Radar System
These can be reflected, diminished, or bent by their surroundings or conditions.
Atmospheric Attenuation
http://missionscience.nasa.gov/ems/01_intro.html
http://paos.colorado.edu/~fasullo/1060/resources/radar.htm
http://www.ig.utexas.edu/research/projects/mars/education/radar_works.htm
http://www.ig.utexas.edu/research/projects/mars/education/radar_works.htm
Reflection
http://www.sdfamilyscience.org/Color_light/reflection.html
Diffraction
http://www.answers.com/topic/radar-shadow
Atmospheric Refraction
http://www.wdtb.noaa.gov/courses/dloc/topic3/lesson1/Section5/Section5-3.html
Super/Sub Refraction
Super
: Temperature increases with height; moisture decreases with height.
Fun fact
: this beam refracts more than usual.

Sub
: Temperature decreases as height increases; moisture increases with height.
Did you know
: this beam refracts LESS than usual.
http://wx.db.erau.edu/faculty/mullerb/Wx365/Radar_anomalous_propagation/false_echoes.html
Incoherent Scatter Echo
The radar's targets are electrons in the ionosphere, which scatter the radio waves.
Measures:
Ion composition and temperature
Plasma velocity
Electron temperature and density
http://www.haystack.mit.edu/atm/mho/instruments/isr/isTutorial.html
http://www.radartutorial.eu/11.coherent/co04.en.html
Arvonna Wolfenbarger
with special guest:
Holly Pence

Types of Clutter
:
Volume Clutter - weather i.e. rain or snow
Point Clutter - birds, tall buildings, etc.
Surface Clutter - returns from land or sea
Targets
Fixed clutter
Weather clutter
Full transcript