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Copy of Just-Noticeable Difference (j.n.d)

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Yin Yi Regina Chan

on 21 March 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Just-Noticeable Difference (j.n.d)

Just-Noticeable Difference (j.n.d)
Just-Noticeable Difference (j.n.d)
"The just noticeable difference (j.n.d) is the minimal difference in intensity between two stimuli that a person can detect.”
Above JND
Application of JND
Below J.N.D VS Negative Changes
Weber’s Law
Developed by Ernst Heinrich Weber (1795–1878)
differential threshold
two stimuli is proportional to the magnitude of the stimuli
or, an increment is judged relative to the previous amount
General examples of j.n.d
$3 increase

on price of

A McDonalds lunch set
A Gucci Handbag
Which one you may aware of the increase price?
McDonalds lunch set

10% discount

A T-shirt
travelling tour package
Which one you may aware of the discount?
 Travelling tour package

Below JND
1% to 5% discount
won’t attract consumers

20% up to 50% discount
would definitely catch attention

The minimum change necessary for a person to detect


- most consumers are price sensitive


– the first impression given to consumer
JND Differences

if below JND

Ineffective and cost
more resources if over JND

Create risk

in the long run

How to manage JND

Provide special pricing on
Filet-O-Fish ($9)
from the
original price ($14.5)

Reassemble the package with a
as container

Above j.n.d example

Nestlé's Honey Stars

Puzzles, stickers
as free gifts

Consumers get use to the
difference and no longer pay attention

Ends up
providing toys
are much attractive and eye catching

Nestlé's Honey Stars

Making the future plan for JND
much difficult

End up
too costly

Hard to catch attention
Over JND

Consumers will
not pay attention
to products unless promotion or discount is
above JND

critically examine JND
before action

Stay focus
keep an eye
on it


Consumers cannot notice the

The stronger
the stimulus, 
the greater
the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different for the stimulus to be seen as different.

The increment of decreasing price are
For example: 9% off($16.9$15.5) ,
are not readily noticeable
Below the Just noticeable difference(J.N.D)

Loss the competitive because it cannot emphasizes the competitive advantages

Eg: Confidence( made in Hong Kong)
The ingredients are
reliable(Vegetable oil)

Nissin Instant Noodles
Four seas seaweed(4 pieces3pieces)
Depends on
individuals' tendencies

 Reductions in product size
Negative changes
(against the measurement though Facebook page)
8’s package
10’s package
Reductions in product size  Hardly noticeable
new external package
as same as before

The cost will be reduced
Extra Chewing Gum
Change must be monitored 
Below J.N.D
Feel less confident in their decision making

Cause customers to become confused by offering an inconclusive depiction of the product's quality

Negative changes
Above J.N.D
Catch customers’ attention
Product improvements
Compare and contrast above and Below Just noticeable difference(J.N.D)

Just at J.N.D
People perceive the difference

The most efficient decision
consumers' purchasing patterns

purchase products based on : perceived differences between products than they are to purchase based on the attributes of one product or another

indiscernible stimuli is just below threshold to influence consumer subliminal message


Product pricing

Producers apply this concept of differential threshold in pricing of two or more products of the same company

For example: different products of fruit juices of same company with different price range
Characteristic (1)

$ 7.5

$ 7.5

$ 8.9

$ 7.5

$ 7.9

Tao Ti
Product packaging

applied for maintaining a uniform or stable identity of product

consumer can identify easily about the product and its categories

Packaging also reflects the brand name.
For example- snacks packaging, different snacks of same company
Characteristic (2)
Product extension

extending the different variety of product under the same brand

using the different modes of publicity

main idea: strengthen the new products by the well-established brand reputation

Characteristic (3)
Subpart of an advertising concept

(Company Name, Logo, Color etc.)

To create an unforgettable identity in consumers mind

At or below just noticeable difference to retain established identity

For example: When company updating their logo, retain some recognizable elements.

Identity Retention
The Evolution of Starbucks Logo

How consumer perceives one company’s products/ services

Consistent to company identity
( Brand personality)

– Sincerity
– Excitement
– Competence
– Sophistication
– Ruggedness

Product Perception
Below just noticeable difference to stay distinctive

For example: Louis Vuitton consistently produce products that give the luxury perception, while those of Nike’s give the perception of being sporty

Product Perception
How producer deliver its products/services into the hands of customers

Ways of Distribution
– Direct Distribution
– Indirect Distribution
( Wholesaler & Retailer)

Types of Goods
– Convenience goods
– Shopping Goods
– Specialty goods

Distribution Channels
Intensitivity of Distribution
– Intensive Distribution
– Selective Distribution
– Exclusive Distribution

Above just noticeable difference when comparing different types of products

For example, Convenience goods best use intensive distribution due to high demand & supply, while Specialty goods best use exclusive distribution to provide the exclusiveness.

Distribution Channels

Direct Distribution Indirect Distribution (Retailer)

Specialty Goods (Lamborghini)

Shopping Goods (Zara)

Convenience Goods (Toilet Paper)

Means to boost temporary product/service sales
Promotion – Advertising, discounts, premiums
Above just noticeable difference when comparing different products of the same brand
For example: Estee Lauder uses different advertisements for various lipsticks under the same product line

Product Promotion

Estee Lauder Rebellion
Estee Lauder Envy
Package decision of J.N.D:
Below J.N.D
(Reductions in product size, quality, or increase in product price are not readily noticeable)
Update their existing package designs without losing the cumulative advertising
Condition: Consumer need to perceive the minimal difference
Not all Below JND are ineffective!!!
Depends on the company strategies.

Low involvement product usually exist the negative changes
Cut cost
Below J.N.D VS Negative Changes
Things have changed:
Logo: Add the
“Made in Hong Kong”
"Pure plant oil”

Design: A additional transparency space for looking inside

Package changed message:
1. QC Guarantee by made in Hong Kong
2.Health conscious of using vegetable oil

The effectiveness of the applying of J.N.D:
Effective / Ineffective change

Extra chewing gum

Things have changed:
Fewer Volume

From 10 pieces a pack changes to 8 pieces a pack

The effectiveness of the applying of J.N.D:
Effective / Ineffective Negative change

Things have changed
Graphic Design:
Delete the ISO 9001 qualification

Changing the raw material from TU FU Ling to Fresh Fu Ling( different medical effect )

Package changed message:
The effectiveness of the applying of J.N.D: Effective / Ineffective negative change

Guiling Gao

Things has changed :
height lowered 0.5cm
Fewer volume

Package changed message:
The effectiveness of the applying of J.N.D:
Effective / Ineffective negative change

Graphic design
Element to detemine the package change

Recommendation: Extra chewing gum

Problem: Not noticeable for fewer Volume

Make a smaller product size
Add the volume number onto the package cover
Graphic design :
Change a different design

Not involve Tu Fu Ling

Problem: Not noticeable of changing the raw material fromTU FU Ling to Fu Ling ( different medical effect )

Color :
Change another color to stimuli customer about the change
Text :
Add the changes onto the package cover
Graphic design :
Put the graph of Fu Ling onto the package cover
Language :
Using Chinese and English to describe the change

Recommendation: Guiling Gao

Problem: A negative of shorter design and fewer volume

Size :
Different package
Text :
Slogan to encourage saving environment
Graphic design:
Green marketing
Symbolism :
Green marketing (Polar bear)

Let customer understand the message of the change !!!


A. Above J.N.D
B. At J.N.D
C. Below J.N.D

Q1. In company position which want to cut the product’s cost , which level of J.N.D is the most suitable to apply in

package decision/product packaging

A. Consumer will not pay attention
B. Create more sales
C. Consumer pay attention
D. Consumer want to buy more

Q2 What consequence may be a
of company if apply
above J.N.D
in package decision?

A. Positive change
B. Negative change
C. Significant change
D. No change
E. Economic change

Q3 In which situation in
below J.N.D
is bad to consumer?

Demae Itcho
The End
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