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Copy of Teaching Music in Key Stage 1

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Rachael Gadd

on 31 January 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Teaching Music in Key Stage 1

Teaching Music in Key Stage 1

The 5 Elements of music; Pitch, Dynamics, Texture, Timbre & Tempo
Creating and Composing
Children in KS1 should be able to 'create musical patterns' and 'explore, choose and organize musical ideas' (National Curriculum, 2012). Malcolm Ross asked weather 'compositions owe more to the teacher's skills as an arranger than the pupil's as a creator?' (Paynter, J, 2008:145). Composing allows for children to try out different sounds and ideas and gives them opportunities to create something meaningful.
Activity: Pitch
Use a glockenspiel to play children a short melody. Get them to sing each note aloud and to come up and order themselves from lowest to highest, left to right.
Using Technology in Music
Recording children's performances
Activity: Dynamics
Sing a nursery rhyme with the children and be the 'conductor'. Use your hands to control the sound level, showing them when to sing louder and quieter. You can also invent your own signs to indicate other dynamics. Then get children to come up and be the conductors for the class. Kemp (1990) found that children are more likely to remember gestures associated with sound rather than the sound by itself (Cited in Robson, C & Jones, P, 2008: 91)
The History of Music
Children in Key Stage 1 should 'perform, listen to, review and evaluate music across a range of historical periods, genres, styles and traditions, including the works of the great composers and musicians' (National Curriculum, 2014). 'If pupils are to make sense of music historically and culturally, they should find out about the time, place and people to which it belongs, not just pursue a chronological sequence of 'musical periods'' page (Glover & Ward, 1998:158)
- 'The pitch of a note is the frequency of it's vibrations' (Naxos, 2013). Is the sound high or low?
- 'Dynamics are the levels of sound loud or soft, in a piece of music' (Naxos, 2013)
- 'Texture describes the complexity of a musical composition. The word texture is used because adding different layers or elements to music creates a musical “tapestry.” (About.com, 2013)
- How long does the note last? 'The length of time something lasts; eg, the vibration of a musical sound' (iMusicDictionary, 2011)
- 'Tone color, quality of sound that distinguishes one verse or instrument to another' (Classical Works, 2013)
Resources: Historical music, Cards: Wavy, straight, loud, quiet, slow, fast, high, low
Activity: Texture
Activity: Timbre
Activity 2- Pitch
Listening to recorded music
Activity: Duration
Get children to sit in a circle. Pass a note around the circle so that there is never silence. Get children to hold the note for as long as they can until the next child takes over. This activity can also be developed by using un-tuned percussion instruments.
Use tape to draw 5 lines on the carpet. Use a glockenspiel and play a range of notes to the children. Get them to sing their notes and see if they can hear which is higher and which is lower. Ask them to place themselves on which line they think they should go on. (Before this, specificy that the bottom line is for the lowest notes and the top line is for the highest notes). You could also introduce the word 'stave', if the children want to know what to call the musical lines. After the children have made the melody, they can sing or play it using tuned instruments.
The National Curriculum for 2014 states that children in Key Stage 1 should 'understand and explore how music is created, produced and communicated, including through the inter-related dimensions: pitch, duration, dynamics, tempo, timbre, texture, structure and appropriate musical notations' (National Curriculum, 2014). 'The study of standard notation is not relevant to all forms of music making, and much worthwhile music activity in any musical tradition can take place without recourse to it' (Mills, J, 1991: 69). Notation refers to the written symbols of sounds which represent a piece of music. In learning about notation, children can do an activities on how to represent rhythm and melody.
Where is the learning?
When comparing their notes to the rest of the notes, the children will learn how to recognize which notes are higher or lower than others. They will also get a better understanding of how this is represented musically, having seen a visual representation of a stave.
glockenspiels, tape, cylophone, chime bars
Glokenspiel, rainstick, drums, tambourines, triangle, bells
Recording children's musical compositions emphasizes to children that the most important part of their composition is the sound. It also helps when listening back as children can comment constructively on their work (Tillman, J, 1976: 31)
Many teachers are prepared to play with ideas and resources in other areas of the curriculum without expecting the children to achieve great things, but instead allowing them to develop at their own pace. In order to teach music effectively, teachers should not expect children to create symphonies, but to explore ideas (Pugh, A & Pugh, L, 1998: 50)
Where is the learning?
Sit the children in a circle and get the first child to make a vocal sound. Get the next child in the circle to repeat the sound but change it slightly (eg, using different vowels/consonants- 'zzzzzz'). When the sound has gone all the way around the circle, compare the first sound with the last and talk about how it has changed. Use words such as 'louder, quieter, stronger, weaker, softer, harder, longer, shorter'.
Make 5 cards with 'clap', 'sing', 'hum' 'stamp' and 'click' on them. Show the children two cards at a time and have them make the sounds using their bodies. Get children to describe them using words such as loud, low, high, thick and thin. In groups of 5, get children to play each sound and to think about how they sound when they are played together and when they are played alone.
Resources: Cards- clap, sing, hum, stamp, click
Resources: Range of un-tuned instruments (eg Triangles, Drums, Tambourines)
Where is the learning?
Examples of Music
The Role of the Teacher
Primary music teachers should inspire creativity amongst children, enabling them to discover and expand on their musical potential. Glover & Ward state that the role of the primary music teacher is to be 'responder, supporter and reflector' (Glover & Ward, 1998:134). The teacher should respond to ideas, support children's musical development and help them to reflect on their performances. The teacher plays a vital role in the learning of music. Without someone to play this role, children will have a lack of meaning in their understanding. Glover & Ward also state that whilst some teachers are not music specialists, they should still behave musically (Glover & Ward, 1998: 134).
Children will learn how to recognize the difference between high and low sounds and will learn that they can be ordered visually as well as audibly.
Assessment in Music
McNamara' fallacy
McNamara talks about the need for worthwhile assessment as opposed to assessing things that can be easily assessed. For example, evaluating whether or not children used a crescendo in their composition (Cited in Fautley, M, 2010:63). Instead, teachers should pay attention to all aspects of children's learning.
Children should listen to music from a variety of genres and periods. This will 'develop adventurous tastes and open mindedness in children at an early age' (Jones, P & Robson, C, 2008:23). To make the learning kinaesthetic, get the children to make movements to go with the music. Sometimes, the classroom environment can be very distracting. Getting the children to lie down on the carpet and to look up at the ceiling whilst listening will prevent distraction.
Barrett (1996-1997) looks at children's compositional processes from the point of view of aesthetic decision making, stating that invented notations are a way of gaining insight into musical thinking (Glover J, Ward, S, 1993)
This activity will encourage children to create music for a specific purpose. Children will be learning about timbre and how they can replicate specific sounds with untuned instruments.
Creating a Musical Environment
Glover and Ward state the importance of music being both seen, heard, displayed and collected through photos, notation and scores. 'All of these elements will build a music profile throughout the year' (Glover & Ward, 1993:13)
Wisbey talks about the importance of learning about pitch as it reinforces sounds that form the components of speech (Cited in Mills, J: 2009: 140)
Mills, J (2009), Music in the primary school, Oxford: Oxford University Press
Jones, P & Robson, C (2008) Teaching Music in Primary Schools, Exeter: Learning Matters
Naxos (2013), Available at: http://www.naxos.com/education/glossary.asp (Last accessed: 13/12/2013)
Classical Works (2013) Available at: http://www.classicalworks.com/html/glossary.html (Last accessed: 13/12/2013)
Mills, J & Paynter, J (2008), 'Thinking and Making', Oxford University Press
Glover, J & Ward, S (1998), Teaching Music in the Primary School, London: Cassell
Glover, J, (2000) Children Composing 4-14, London: Routledge
Get the children to create their own short rhythms by clapping. Then use carpet spots to represent each clap. Get the children to put the spots on the carpet where they think they need to go, if each spot represents one clap. Remind them to think about spacing of the claps. Are they fast or slow; should the spots be placed close together or far apart? When they have laid the spots out, get them to jump over the spots whilst the rest of the group clap the rhythm.
Where is the learning?
Activity 1: Rhythm
When children are placing the spots on the carpet, they will be thinking about whether the claps are fast or slow and they will learn how to represent this visually.
Get the children to close their eyes and listen to Vivaldi- Four Seasons: Autumn. Ask them what instruments they can hear and ask them to listen out for the bird sound. Explain that this bird sound keeps coming back throughout the piece and that it is called a 'motif'. A motif is a little pattern that you can hear at different times throughout a piece of music. Get children to create their own short motifs in pairs using Glockenspiels. Encourage children to play with the rhythm and melody.
By doing this activity, children will gain an understanding of the fact that the same musical techniques can be used in any type of music and with any instrument. They will also learn that the same elements can be utilized in modern compositions.
Where is the learning?
Resources: Four Seasons: Autumn, Glockenspiels
Children will learn that sound can change through a variety of ways; timbre, pitch, texture and duration. Using musical language to describe the sound will enhance their listening skills and phonological awareness.
Where is the learning?
Children will learn how different parts of their body make different sounds. Describing these sounds will enhance children's understanding of musical terminology.
Where is the learning?
This activity will get children to think about the different sounds that can be made by changing the way they are sung/played. They will learn the difference between ongoing notes and staccato notes and how these can change the whole feel of the sound.
Where is the learning?
This activity will enhance children's listening skills and increase their awareness of sound, giving them opportunities to respond to the music and practice using musical terminology.
Where is the learning?
This activity can also be used in the classroom throughout the day to control noise level, enabling them to see the connection between voice and music.
To encourage children to use musical language, make cards 'wavy', 'straight', 'loud' 'quiet' 'slow' 'fast' 'high' and 'low. Listen to a piece of music and get the children to hold up the card that describes it best.
In groups, give children a theme such as 'Jungle' or 'Rainforest' and let them experiment using tuned and un-tuned instruments. Firstly, you could make lists of sounds you might hear in the jungle/ rainforest. In mixed ability groups, children will replicate these sounds using the instruments. After they have created their composition, get the children to draw it as a graphic score, using their own invented symbols to indicate the type of instrument and how it should be played. Swap these scores around so that each group has a new score and get the children to play the composition, thinking about what the symbols might mean. This will give them an opportunity to practice reading a score.
Mixed Ability Groups: Performing together helps children of different social backgrounds, genders and abilities collaborate with each other. Children who sometimes find it difficult to mix in might find themselves being valued by their peers for their musical abilities (Tovim, B (1979) cited in Pugh, A & Pugh, L, 1998: 3)
Imusicdictionary (2011) Available at: http://www.imusicdictionary.com/ (Last accessed: 13/12/2013)
Music can also be listened to in other curriculum subjects such as Art, D&T and PE.
Looking at children's graphic scores can be problematic as children sometimes struggle to convey their thoughts in written form. To overcome this problem, children can be assessed through talk and observation so that the teacher can see what learning is taking place.
The problem with visually assessing
Music Corner: Question cards
Put a different piece of music on in the music corner everyday and display a range of question cards about the music. For example; How would you describe the sound? What instruments can you hear? Can you make a dance to this music?
Group activities give children opportunities to 'consolidate their understanding' (Robson, C & Jones, P, 2008: 136)
Multi-sensory and active approaches to music teaching will aid the children to develop 'sophisticated thought processes in both right and left of the brain through the medium of movement' (Robson, C & Jones, P, 2008: 45)
Based on this piece, you could do an activity based on numbers and melody. In groups, get the children to assign numbers to notes and compose a short repeated pattern
This piece can be linked with dynamics. Children can listen out for the types of dynamics used and then create their own compositions, including an element of surprise.
Using other types of technology
Interactive Whiteboard:
Composition Software:
The IWB is particularly useful for whole class learning and can be used to display and make graphic scores, as well as being used to play interactive music games on websites such as http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/websites/4_11/site/music.shtml
Ipads can be used to record sounds using the voice recorder. They can also be used to video performances, allowing children to evaluate their compositions.
A range of programs can be used to aid the children in composing. They can use programs such as Paint to convey their understanding of notation.
Ask children's questions such as 'Does it sound modern? What country do you think it was made in?
By Francesca Tomlin
'Applications are available that simulate keyboards and other instruments, that tutor pupils and allow them to compose, record, practise and refine their music without the need for additional' (A National Plan for Music Education, 2011)
'Music can make a powerful contribution to the education and development of children, having benefits which range from those that are largely academic to the growth of social skills and contribution to overall development. It is a unique form of communication that can change the way pupils feel, think and act' (A National Plan for Music Education, 2011)
Department for Education (2011), A National Plan for Music Education, Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/180973/DFE-00086-2011.pdf (Last accessed: 14/12/2013)
Department for Education (2013), Music Programs of Study, Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-curriculum-in-england-music-programmes-of-study/national-curriculum-in-england-music-programmes-of-study
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