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Rhetorical Fallacies - Emotional Appeals
Transcript of Rhetorical Fallacies - Emotional Appeals
Project By: Janie Alcorn Aliye Karakoyun Kendra Hall Courtney Dorrian Cameron Dorrian Why and How is it Used? Who Uses It? Scare Tactics is a fallacy that appeals to
fear, it is used by an arguer who attempts
to create support for an idea using
propaganda and deception. This tactic frightens people into agreeing
by highlighting the possible negative outcome... This fallacy is commonly used in marketing, media, politics, and used by journalists and parents. It is effective, in that it often relies on exaggeration. The audience is supposed to use their logic to draw the OBVIOUS extreme negative conclusion. What are some examples???? So... what's so fishy about
Red Herrings? This is a fallacy that appeals to fear, it is used
by an arguer who attempts to create support
for an idea or argument through the use of deception and propaganda. It plays with a person's fear to influence their actions and thoughts, it not a tactic that is a direct threat, but more of a forced conclusion. This tactic works because it's usually easier to imagine something terrible happening then logically thinking of it's statictical rarity. It is the use of unrelated evidence or
info that "supports" the arguers conclusion. A Red Herring is a fallacy that it is used in arguments only to help the arguer "win" that argument by leading attention away from the topic and to another.
The arguer trys claiming that this new topic is relevent and supports his claim when it truly isn't. Many people who are bad arguers
use this often so that they can try to
win an argument.
So, try and avoid using this fallacy in any of your own. Red Herrings are also known as "Smoke Screens"
"Wild Goose Chases." FALSE NEED FALLACY False need arguments create an unnecessary desire
for certain things, and in these arguments there is usually a worthless pattern of reasoning. Advertising is where we see this fallacy in effect the most.
It tries to make us think we need something when we really don't!! For example, car commercials and advertisements expose us to newer model cars and make us think we need all the new specialties it comes with, although the car we are driving now runs just fine suddenly you "NEED" a new car.
This fallacy can be widely seen in people buying the latest phone, like the iPhone because they develop a"FALSE NEED" for it because of all the advertisements and commercials. Seeing the commercial for cute little dell laptops makes
everyone eager to buy one, and this also makes them think that it is a "need" for them to get one. Slippery Slope An exaggeration; it says that because one thing happens, something terrible or detrimental will happen because of it
OR something amazingly awesome will happen. Don't Do It!!! Slippery Slopes are used to scare people out of doing something, deciding something, or maybe even voting a certain way by saying they can do something but, bad things will happen later on because of that first action.
They are also used to motivate people to do something so that they can
achieve a reward. Either/Or The favorable option The dangerous alternative Sentimental Appeals This, This, & This Could Happen!!! What Is It? Wait... How's
Used? Who Uses This Stuff? Just A Little Note Here's Some Examples As you can see Girl 1 wants her $20.00 back and Sombrero Girl acknowledges that,
yet changes the subject suddenly to lead away from the topic
and Girl 1 completely follows after the new topic without even thinking. In this example we see two men that need to get a meeting, but they are interrupted by a band of Mariachis who say that meals need to enjoyed and therefore they should not go to the meeting yet. There is even a woman shown that is probably an official of some sort that asks what is going on and is also susceptible to the man's red herring or flirting. Whichever you want to call it. In this video we can see a clear example of Slippery Slope,
the man asks the question
should we let EVERYONE be equal under the law
and then goes on a rant that leads to worse things. What Is It? How's It Used? Need An Example?
Here Ya Go. Need Another Example?
Okay! Who Uses It? Advertisers use this to get you to buy their products because if you use it, it can lead to good things.
Parents use it to show their kids that if they act on one thing the outcome might be good or bad. We see in this Samsung Commercial an example of slippery slope because whenever Seth Rogan or Paul Rudd try to say the words, "Super Bowl", "San Fransisco 49's", or "Baltimore Ravens" the marketing guy stops them because he thinks they could get sued. To put it in LayMan's Terms: It's the simplification of arguments
making it to where there are only
two options or solutions to a
problem or argument.
This goes hand-in-hand with "Oversimplification". What Is It?? How's It Used? Who Uses It? Visual Examples of Either/Or It is used to narrow options in an argument, most of the times it is used in a way that makes one great option and one terrible. Sometimes you won't like both options, but that's how they are used. They make you choose the lesser of two evils, even though you still don't like both of them, Mother-In-Laws use this to say things like,
"Do this or I'll disown you".
to get you to do what you may not want to do.
Not always, but some do.
Advertisers use it to say,
"Would you rather use our great product or their crap product"
Even when you know there are more choices in the market sometimes you still choose between the two options.
Parents use this to give advice like,
"You can do this and get grounded or you can do this and get movie tickets."
to get you to act the way you should. Here are some examples... As you can see in this video of Jesus and Larry King, Larry King cons Jesus into admitting that he is Jesus because he uses the Either/Or Fallacy which gives Jesus only two options that he can possibly choose from.
In the end Jesus admits that he actually is.... Jesus. Either you can
be nice... Or don't be. In this video from the movie Saw we see a more dramatic example of Either/Or. Jigsaw gives you the choice to live, yet you know you will be tortured and he also gives you the choice to die.. yet you still want to live. This example is arguably the most weighted ultimatum out there. What Are Sentimental Appeals? They are the use of emotion or pathos to distract the audience from facts that someone may not want you to notice. We're on our way to sadness.... How Are They Used? They are used in a way that makes you sad or "tugs on your heartstrings" to a point that you, as the audience, aren't necessarily paying attention to the facts.
Sometimes arguers use this to get you to agree with them sneakily. What Are Sentimental Appeals? They are the use of emotion or pathos to distract the audience from facts that someone may not want you to notice. Who Uses Them? As was stated before arguers use this fallacy to get you to agree with them without even realizing that you're agreeing with someone that you would never agree with in other circumstances. Here is the first example: You know it's coming... Get Ready... This is a brutal example of a Sentimental Appeal.
With all the components of the pictures of sad, injured, and neglected animals,
the raspy voice of Willie Nelson with his sad song "You Are Always On My Mind",
the captions about their despair,
the pleading voice of the woman practically begging you to call and donate to the ASPCA.
They even offer you a free t-shirt.
Yes, they give you facts throughout the commercial, but it makes you feel almost guilty if you don't donate money. Think you're sad now? Here's the second example: Or
This, This, & This Could Happen!!! In this video we see pictures of many "sad" dogs and a situation of animal hoarding that leads to neglect, hunger, and other things. The captions make you want to support their cause and donate to the ASPCA. Then there's the kicker... They put a quote from an ASPCA worker that pretty much says, "Please keep supporting us so we can continue our work." The End What Is It? How Is It Used? Who Uses It? Need More Examples? Oh Wait!!!
We Forgot One! Now It's The End Here's
Example Bandwagon Appeals are appeals that encourage the audience to agree with the writer or speaker just because everyone else is doing so. In other words it trys to make you take the same path that everyone else is taking.
This can go hand-in-hand with "Peer Pressure".
You want to do it because everyone else is doing it and because your peers are the "everyone" else. As was said before, peers use this to get you to do what they want you to do.
Advertisers also use this to get you to buy their products when they claim that you'll be cool for having it. Example: Old Cigarette Commercials.
The media and social media uses this fallacy to get you to agree with a news story or to get you to connect with the world around you. It's used in a sneaky way that some people can't detect. Sometimes very independent thinkers see straight through the transparency of band wagon, but the larger numbers of people who want to be "cool" and like everyone else are susceptible to such fallacies. In this video we see someone actually doing the opposite of bandwagon. The Miami Heat guy just wants to get on the other guys nerves and then when his team loses turns it back around on him showing him the bandwagon of the situation. This video shows bandwagon clearly because the HipHop guys tells CountryMan he needs to change because everyone else is HipHop-ish so, unfortunately he changes in the end. Video Made By Janie Alcorn Scare Tactics is a fallacy that appeals to
fear, it is used by an arguer who attempts
to create support for an idea using
propaganda and deception. Aliye Cameron Courtney Janie Kendra What Is It? Who Uses It? How's It Used? What Are Emotional Fallacies? They are appeals that unfairly toy with the audience's emotions.
We'll be going over ones that make you fear something, create a need in you, and others that make you sad. Video Sources can be found on a playlist here: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLM0ykcHUD7molQZ6klU-z_BmtqU2cnCCT POP QUIZ!!!!!! What Is This
Example Of? "If you don't stop and give a report to the cop about the accident they will hunt you down and get it from you while you're sleeping." It's Scare Tactics!!! What Is This An Example Of? "You have to get this cool new alarm clock! It flys around your room, beeping until you get up. If you don't get it you'll never wake up on time." It's False Need!!! What Is This An Example Of? "Angelina Jolie and Brad Pitt have adopted many children from different countries,
so you should adopt some too." It's Band Wagon!!!! What's This An Example Of? "All the poor, little Iraqi kids are dying and hungry and losing their families therefore we should forget about the oil and stop the war." It's Sentimental Appeal!!! "You can do 1 of 2 things. Plead 'guilty' and get a good sentence, or continue to lie and when they find out the truth receive a death penalty for killing Maggie Sue." What Is This
Example Of? It's Either/Or!! What Is This
Example Of? "If you get a B in that class you'll get a B in another class and then another and then you'll end up having a bad GPA and won't get into that Ivy League college that you've always wanted to get into and then you won't be able to be a doctor like your parents want." It's Slippery Slope!!!! What Is This
Example Of? 1: I think this painting is wonderful; it's probably very valuable.
2: Pssh, yeah right.
1: What? A very famous painter painted it.
2: It's worthless cause I don't know who the painter is. It's Red Herring!!! You
Passed! Video Made By Janie Alcorn