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What were the reason for Germany defeat in WW1
Transcript of What were the reason for Germany defeat in WW1
*Germany also suffered from weak allies.
Germany constantly had to help out the Austrians and Bulgarians. With the defeat of Bulgaria and then the Serbs in September 1918, followed by the defeat of Austria by Italy and then the surrender of Turkey in October, it was only a matter of time before Germany had to surrender.
•The Germans were ultimately unable to sustain their losses after the failure of the 1918 offensive. An epidemic of Spanish flu in 1918 made the situation much worse, and morale was very low in German Army
* The dire economic situation in Germany. (1918 played an important role in Germany’s defeat)
•Supplies were not reaching the German Army, and that the German population was ready for revolution.
The German government proved less efficient at organizing the country for war that the Allied countries.
German agriculture was particularly hard hit by the war; production fell by 70 per cent in some areas.
Although Germany could have beaten France as well as Russia could have defeated Austria-Hungary on its own, the alliances between countries and the high amount of resources they managed made it harder for Germany to win as time passed by.
These resources lead the Allies to win the war, especially after the contribution of the United States with $7.7 billion lent in addition to the two million soldiers lacking war weariness which allowed the development of a “modern style of warfare” in which developments like tanks, artillery, aircraft, and infantry used in relatively close cooperation became the elements to ensure victory.
The use of new weaponry and warships helped the crucial control of the seas that forced the blockade on Germany and caused food shortages while at the same time it allowed the Allies mobilization of their supplies.
World war 1 is considered the first total war for several reason:
* Both sides looked for total victory.
* Governments used all their supplies and developed more technology to win the war.
* It involved the whole population (civilians and soldiers). Civilians were targets during the military conflicts.
* There were major changes in government, social and economic practices to control their economy and population.
In what way was World War 1 a Total war ?
The aims of the belligerents
The aims of the power involved in the fighting were "total" and made any negotiated peace very difficult to achieve.
In 1917, there were several calls for peace, coming from such divergent sources as the Pope, Lenin (the new Bolshevik leader of Russia) and Lord Lansdowne, a British Conservative and former Viceroy of India and Foreign Secretary.
Lord Lansdowne made the point that the war was costing more in terms of human and economic resources than could ever be regained, even by victory.
The use of weaponry
In what way was World War 1 a Total war ?
The role of the fighting on civilians
Civilians were also afected by the actual fighting and there were Many casualties as a result of the new technology available to both sides .Civilians were actually caught up in the battles.civilians after the initial battles , were able to keep away from the actual fighting and casualties only resulted due to inaccurate artillery fire .
The lives of civilians in al countries were also affected by the huge. Losses of soldiers all families and village across Europe faced the consequence of the lose generation .the enormous casualties in the early campaigns also led to the introduction of military conscription
World war l also saw the 20th century's first genocide .hundreds of thousands of Armenians died from starvation and thirst web the ottoman Turks deported them en masse from eastern Anatolia to the Syrian Desert and elsewhere in 1915-16
Turkey estimate the total to be 300,000 according to the international association of genocide scholars, the total was more than a million
Both sides used the full arsenal of weapons at their disposal and also developed new technologies for land, sea and air warfare to try to break the deadlock and achieve total victory.
The impact of economic warfare on civilians.
Both sides realize the advantages of cutting off supplies to their enemies.
The British Blockade had a devastating effect on Germany, causing desperate foo’s shortages and contributing to Germany´s defeat in 1918.
Germany´s use of submarine warfare also subject British civilians to shortages, and Russia suffered from the Blockades on the Dardanelles.
Civilians as part of the war effort.
In Britain, France and Germany, the women joining the workforce as more and more and more men left to fought in the war.
However, in all countries there was resistance to employing women, and it was not until 1915 that serious recruitment of women into industries began.
In Britain there had to be negotiations to reach agreements on women entering “MEN´S JOBS” in munitions and engineering. Woman were supposed to receive equal wages to men for similar jobs, but rarely did, their wages remained low by 1917, one in four war workers was female, leading Joseph Joffre to claim that “If the woman in the war factories stopped for 20min, we should lose the war”