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Vision and Cell Communication

Created for AP Biology
by

Dylan Padilla

on 8 October 2013

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Transcript of Vision and Cell Communication

VISION AND CELL COMMUNICATION
Basic Structure of the Eye
Sitting on the retina, there are about 126 million photoreceptors (120 million rod cells and 6 million cone cells) taking in light and sending that information into the brain in order to create an image.
Ligands
THE OPTIC NERVE
Responses
The true story behind the way we see and react to that--using photoreceptors, our brains, and good old signal transduction pathways.
Cones
ABOUT 6-7 MILLION IN EACH EYE
Rods
ABOUT 120 MILLION IN EACH EYE
Black and White (Night) Vision
Color Vision
Directly attached to the retina of the eye and the brain is a trail of neurons in the form of an optic nerve. When light is sensed by photoreceptors, a message is sent through it straight into the brain, where it is then translated into an image.
FUN FACT
The image is essentialy upside-down until it is turned "right-side-up" by the brain.
Nerve cells can be found all throughout the optic nerve.
THE BRAIN'S VISION SYSTEM
Signal Transduction Pathway
Basically, light is sensed by photoreceptor cells (cones and rods) and a message is sent straight into the brain's vision center through the optic nerve. The brain interprets this in real time and vision is perceived.
Cellular Response
The photoreceptor cells send signals through the optic nerve and into the brain...after the image is seen in the brain, it's normally the organism's job to choose how to react.
Organismal Response
Sight is an important feature for almost all multicellular organisms. For humans, it is used to read, learn, interpret body language, know how to react, and even view beautiful or spectacular sights. The world would be a very bland place without vision and it already is for many unlucky people with blindness.
Research
Much research is being conducted on how to solve eye problems like blindness, colorblindness, and many other problems via eye surgery. Laser eye surgery is already being used on tons of patients to fix physical problems within the eye.
Mechanisms
Faulty Mechanism
Blindness, colorblindness, and many other problems can occur during development of the eye, requiring special attention such as eyewear or surgery.
Correct Mechanism
What's supposed to happen? The organism should see a 3-D colored image, with no unusual distortion or light or color flashes.
Dylan Padilla, Samantha Torres, and Joseph Romanszky
AP Bio, 10/4/13
Full transcript