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levels of processing & reconstructive memory

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Faisal Ahmed

on 29 September 2014

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Transcript of levels of processing & reconstructive memory

Second explanation of how our memory works
Levels of Processing
Lesson Objectives:

To be able to evaluate the levels of processing model of memory.

To be able to describe one practical application of the levels of processing model.

To be able to identify, describe the three
the levels of processing.
The multi-store model over-emphasizes the role of rehearsal in memory. Critics suggest that we remember things long term because they have meaning, not because we rehearse them.
Criticism of the multi-store model
Write all the words you remember from the test; this is called
free recall
.

You have four minutes!


Instructions
End of the test!
Write 1 to 18 down the side of your page.

You will be presented with a word for a very short duration.

You will then be asked a Yes/No question about the word; you may be asked:

Is the word in upper case letters?
Does the word rhyme with…?
Does the word fit in a sentence
e.g. “The cat sat on the ____”?

Write Yes or No and nothing else....
Instructions
18
“Winter is the coldest _______”?
season
16
“The surfer was bitten by a ______”?
SHARK
13
Rhymes with “anger”?
work
12
Capital letters?
SURE
11
“Follow the green cross ______”?
product
10
“Alice was best friends with _____”?
FARM
9
Rhymes with “certain”?
control
7
Rhymes with “mend”?
SEND
4
Rhymes with “course”?
horse
2
Capital letters?
trade
Deep processing leads to better recall than shallow processing.

Shallow processing
= coding information based on its physical characteristics

Deep processing
= coding information for meaning
LEVELS OF PROCESSING
17
Rhymes with “elect”?
direct
15
“I was in bed and fast ______”?
asleep
14
Capital letters?
SOUND
8
Capital letters?
member
6
Capital letters?
certain
5
Capital letters?
PERSON
3
Rhymes with “habitat”?
VESSEL
1
“The children played on the _____”?
Starter: Complete the following

INPUT → → → → OUTPUT
Objectives: To be able to:
-consider levels of processing theory as an alternative theory, with specific reference to the importance of deep processing in memory.
Alternative Theory
- Levels of processing
Repeat after me
Repeat after me
1. A student remembers a list of the researcher’s names by attaching each name to the face of someone she knows.
5. A student says that she call recall what she did last lesson because she thought it was a ‘fun’ lesson.
4.A victim recalls that a nuisance caller spoke in a southern accent, but not what was actually said.
3.A teacher recognises a series of faces because she rated each one for how pleasant it was.
2. A customer registers what font a logo is written in but not what it was.
Look at the examples in the first column and decide whether they are examples of structural, phonetic or semantic processing:
opinion
trade
vessel
farm
person
horse
product
certain
send
asleep
member
control
shark
sure
work
season
sound
direct
Does it rhyme with…?
Does it fit in the sentence?
Was it written in capitals?
WORDS- count up the number of words in each category that you remembered
Opinion
Structural Processing: a shallow level – we look at visual features of words, such as whether they are written in upper-case or lower-case letters.
They suggested that it is the way you think about information (or process it) that is the important if you want to recall it later.

They suggested we can think about information, such as words, at different levels.
Craik and Lockhart (1972)
Levels of Processing
Lesson Objectives:
Be able to identify/describe and/explain the levels of processing model of memory using one key study.
Be able to apply one practical application to the levels of processing model
Semantic Processing:
At the deepest level – we think about the meaning of words
Phonetic Processing: At a middle level – we think about the sound of words.
Evaluation: This study doesn’t explain why deeper levels of processing helps the memory. Some people have said that deeper processing takes more time and that is what helps us to recall more information. It also takes more effort and it maybe the extra effort that helps us.

The ecological validity is also lacking because real life memory tasks are not usually about learning lists of words.
Craik and Lockhart (1972)
Aim: to see if the type of question about words will have an effect on the number of words recalled.

Method: Participants were given a list of words, and asked questions about each word, and they had to answer either ‘yes’ or ‘no’. Some questions required structural processing of the words; others required phonetic processing and the remainder required semantic processing. They were given longer lists of words and asked to point out the words they had answered questions about.

Results: Participants identified 70 % of the words that required some semantic processing, 35% of the words that required phonetic processing and 15% of the words that required structural processing.

Conclusion: The more deeply information is processed; the more likely it is to be remembered.
Key Study
Evaluation: This study doesn’t explain why deeper levels of processing helps the memory. Some people have said that deeper processing takes more time and that is what helps us to recall more information. It also takes more effort and it maybe the extra effort that helps us.

The ecological validity is also lacking because real life memory tasks are not usually about learning lists of words.
Semantic processing is:
________________________________________________________________________________________________
Phonetic Processing Is:
________________________________________________________________________________________________
Semantic Processing: ________________________________________________________________________________________________
Craik and Lockhart (1972)
Aim: to see if the type of question about words will have an effect on the number of words recalled.

Method: Participants were given a list of words, and asked questions about each word, and they had to answer either ‘yes’ or ‘no’. Some questions required structural processing of the words; others required phonetic processing and the remainder required semantic processing. They were given longer lists of words and asked to point out the words they had answered questions about.

Results: Participants identified 80 % of the words that required some semantic processing, 50% of the words that required phonetic processing and 18% of the words that required structural processing.

Conclusion: The more deeply information is processed; the more likely it is to be remembered.
Key Study
Now write out the paragraph you have read, word for word.









How much can you remember?
+ Eye witness testimony research supports the theory that memories are not accurate

- Does not explain how memories are processed

- Bartlett's study was conducted in the 1930’s was not conducted under scientific conditions

+ More recent studies have supported Bartlett's original study
The Constructive approach
Evaluation
- Was conducted approx 80 years ago, society has changed so much in this time.

- However, it can be argued this study still lacks ecological validity as the folk story is unfamiliar to the reader.

+ The findings from the study has been replicated in more recent studies.
Bartlett's 'War of the
Ghosts' study: Evaluation
Bartlett (1932) proposed the constructive approach:

He stated memory is not an accurate account

Existing knowledge (schemas) are used to understand new information

Memories are changed to fit in with what we already know

We tend to see and in particular interpret and recall what we see according to what we expect and assume is 'normal' in a given situation
The Constructive approach
Did anybody write about the glass being broken or smashed?

This is not in the original paragraph but the sentences imply that it occurred.

Why do you think some of you wrote that the glass was smashed or broken?


The big question…
‘When the man entered the kitchen, he slipped on a wet spot and dropped the delicate glass pitcher on the floor. The pitcher was very expensive and everyone watched the event with horror.’

(Bransford, 1979)
Read the following:
Results:

Participants distorted the story when asked to recall it. Participants found it difficult to recall aspects
that were culturally diverse e.g. discussion about the spirits and many swapped the word canoe for boat.

Conclusion:

Memory is distorted to try and fit with a person’s
current schemas.
Bartlett's 'War of
the Ghosts' study
Aim:

To investigate whether memories can be altered due to own values/culture.

Method:

Participants read a story called ‘The war of the ghosts’. The story based upon Native American culture and participants were asked to recall the story repeatedly over days, weeks and months.
Bartlett's 'War of
the Ghosts' study
You have been witness to a serious car accident

During the police interview you describe the scene of the accident

You describe broken glass on the road

Is that because broken glass was there or because due to past experience that is what you would expect to see?
The Constructive Approach

Example:
For example:

It has a large metal door
Buttons and knobs
Gets hot inside
Has hot metal rings on top


Schemas
These are mental structures that represent an aspect of the world, such as an object or event.

Schemas help us to make sense of the world, by providing short cuts to identifying things that we come across (our building blocks of knowledge).
Schemas
Do Now
In the back of your books, complete
the multi-store model of memory:
Levels of Processing
Task
Now make another list but this time you will see the words intermingled with other words which did not appear; this is called
prompted recall
.
We just completed the very experiment carried out by Craik and Lockhart to try
to explain how our memory works.

Look at the results; what do you think Craik and Lockhart suggested?
Discussion
So what do you think these three levels of processing are?
Task
Refer to handout
Read through the information and in your own words write out the Aim, Method, Result and Conclusion (AMRC) for Craik and Lockhart's experiment.
Learning Outcomes:

To be able to evaluate the reconstructive model of memory.

To be able to describe Bartlett's war of the ghost experiment.

To be able to explain what a 'schema' is.
Our third and final explanation of how the memory works...
Task
Past experience has distorted the actual memory
You don't need to have seen this particular cooker before to identify it; the schema
(mental structure) allows you to identify all cookers as long as they don't veer too far
from your mental schema.
That marks the end of our exploration of the three explanations of how the memory
works.



Question Time
Identify all three models of memory.
Identify all three keywords:
Encoding, Storage and Retrieval
What is the duration and capacity of the STM and LTM?
Describe Craik and Lockhart's
three levels of processing.
What is a schema?
What did Bartlett propose using the
'War of the Ghosts' as evidence?
In your books
Next lesson...

we will look at Interference; retroactive
and proactive....do some research
identify both types and what's the
difference between the two.....
Hint: Think about the questions which were associated with each word...
Learning Objective:

To explore Craik and Lockhart's levels of processing model of memory.
Personal, Learning and Thinking skills:

Effective Participator

Creative Thinker
Numeracy Focus:

To be able to work out percentages.
Reconstructive Memory
Learning Objective:

To develop an appreciation for the reconstructive model of memory.
Personal, Learning and Thinking Skills:

Effective Participator

Creative Thinker
Literacy Focus:

To write in full sentences using appropriate punctuation.
Do Now
http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00f8n47

Chinese Whispers
RAP
SONG
MOVIE
POEM
STORY
PERFOR-
MANCE
DANCE
MONOLOGUE
COMIC
PICTURE
TRAILER
MIME
Choose an AMRC and describe and explain it using any of the following formats.
30 mins
30 mins
30 mins
30 mins
30 mins
30 mins
Revision of the three models of memory
Learning Outcome:

To be able to describe and evaluate the following:

Murdock
Craik and Lockhart
Bartlett
Full transcript