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Copy of Getting the most from 3D Backgrounds

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Dharesheni Nedumaran

on 22 April 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Getting the most from 3D Backgrounds

Content
Poltergeist
Theories
(Natural)
Noisy, boisterous and troubling spirit or ghost

Common folklore: spirit of a deceased person

Accounts of activity date back to first century A.D.

Late 90s: activity may be associated with discarnate spirit of living individual

What are they??
In March 1883, the house of Joe White was investigated by Frank Podmore, a researcher for the Society of Psychical Research

Occupants: Joe, his wife, children, brother Tom, eventually “Rose”

Principal ‘witnesses’: Joe, Higgs (a policeman) Lloyd (a doctor), Arthur Currass (friend?).
What Happened at Worksop
1 Mar
2 Mar
20 & 21 Feb
Table tilted up on its own (Mrs. White + children)

Corkscrew, clothes pegs, salt cellar and hot coals thrown towards kitchen (Mrs. White & Rose; Mr. White out of town)

Footsteps in the passage, pieces of carpet thrown down stairs, then knives/forks (Rose, Mr. & Mrs. White). Policeman Higgs arrived, saw glass jar fly out of cupboard into yard, tumbler from chest. (Higgs &White only). Dr. Lloyd and Higgs along with others saw basin rise up, touch ceiling, crash.

Clock falls off mantelpiece, nail intact (room empty at time). Then, plates and jugs levitated and smashed in presence of Mr. & Mrs. White, Rose and neighbour. After this, White asked Rose to leave, events stopped.

Aside from the events listed by Podmore, in Joe White’s eyewitness account, he mentions that on one occasion, along with flying utensils, two candles ‘appeared’ at the bottom of the stairs- candles which had not previously been in the house, and which subsequently disappeared (apportation).

3 Mar
26 Feb
Eliza Rose begins staying at the house

Summary of Events
Frank Podmore, Principal Investigator from SPR believed it was a
childish prank
by Rose on hindsight (follow up article in 1896)
(But) in the course of 13 years, we have (learnt) the incapacity of the ordinary unskilled observer to detect trickery or sleight-of-hand, especially when performed under circumstances of considerable excitement. (Podmore, 1896)
Rose a half-witted girl gifted with abnormal cunning and love of mischief, may have been directly responsible for all that took place. (Podmore, 1896)
Conclusion
Fraud (Pranks) – Strengths

Rose was left to own devices
Lots of time to come up with elaborate pranks
Has happened in other cases, i.e. Enfield
Similar characteristics between agents

Highly plausible (Irwin & Watt, 2007)
Fraud (Pranks) – Limitation

Rose was “half-witted”
Heavy items were moved i.e. jar, basin, and wall

Contradicting information
Table tilted off the ground when Eliza Rose was not present
Not so plausible (Irwin & Watt, 2007)

FRAUD
Eyewitness Testimony
GEO-
PHYSICAL
White, the house owner, had a record of breaking the law

Newspaper claimed White “was anxious to buy the house, and to buy it cheap”

Commenters said poltergeist phenomena was manufactured to win a “sporting bet” between White and his friends over the purchasing price of the house

Hence, the hypothesis is that White did it for
personal gain
(Irwin & Watt, 2007)

Fraud (Trickery)
Fraud (Pranks)
Limitations
White suffered nearly £9 in losses (several hundred pounds today), offsetting any monetary gains
White should have targeted the house as the cause, not Rose

Contradictory information
Lack of evidence
Hypothesis was made by speculators, newspaper never formally asked White
House was examined and not found to be rigged

Lack of accomplices
White must have needed “at least two confederates”, as he was not present at a few poltergeist occurrences; nor was his brother Tom, the chief suspect as confederate to White.

Eyewitness Testimony
One of the ways Podmore “explained away” the events was memory error

There were many discrepancies in eyewitness testimonies in SPR’s report

Could be attributed to the five week gap between events and Podmore’s arrival

Elizabeth Loftus: Prominent psychologist in field of memory malleability

Conducted an experiment to test the effect of language on eyewitness testimony

It was found that leading questions could influence memory

Language used by SPR investigator could have influenced witness’ answers


Limitations
Experiments lack ecological validity

Research does not account for multiple events
Geophysical – Lambert’s Physical Theory of Poltergeist Phenomena

Proposes that noises, vibrations and small object movement can be attributed to underground hydraulic pressure by the river during high tide

Could account for the incident where footsteps were heard in the passage between the houses
Geophysical – Geomagnetism

Researchers have found that electromagnetic components of tectonogenic forces (TFs) can stimulate the temporal lobe and in turn, access memories, induce acute fear and sensations of strangeness

Can account or feelings of fear felt by individuals
Limitations
Geophysical and geomagnetic theories cannot explain the larger objects thrown

Research shows that the force needed to throw larger objects can destroy a house

Theories
(Paranormal)

Spirits
RSPK
Exorcism has been successful in attenuating poltergeist cases (Irwin & Watt, 2007 )

Would technically account for all disturbances at White’s house, Rose being the ‘specific person’ the spirit was directed towards
Strengths
Disturbances directed at a specific person
Claims that poltergeists are a depiction of the spirit of a deceased person
Limitations
Why would a ‘spirit’ be attracted towards only some troubled people and not all? (Irvin & Watt, 2007)

Rose was not present during first incident

No way of proving theory/lack of empirical data

Recurrent Spontaneous Psychokinesis (RSPK)
Psychokinesis (PK) is the ability of the mind to influence physical objects and processes

RSPK is a form of PK that is centered around and produced by a living person (Roll, 2003; Schumacher, 2009)

RSPK explains poltergeist effects as subconscious use of PK as a release from psychological tension (Irwin & Watt, 2007)

Poltergeist

Due to “eruptions” within the CNS (like epilepsy)

Neuropsychological/psychosocial tension can modify a person’s electromagnetic energy and this change focuses energy on the environment resulting in RSPK (Roll & Persinger, 1998)

Recurrent Spontaneous Psychokinesis (RSPK)
Roll's Neurological Model
Identified that a few poltergeist agents had epilepsy symptoms
Pranks (Rose): Podmore believes during investigation; discounts after many years: questionable reliability
Trickery (Mr. White): unlikely, monetary losses > gains
Recurrent Spontaneous Psychokinesis (RSPK)
RSPK also attempts to account for apportation as being a manifestation of the energy released by agent (Von Lucadou & Zahradnik, 2004)

Overall it is a combination of physical and psychological processes that is caused by the agent

Theories
(Paranormal Beliefs)

What Beliefs?

Poltergeist activity

Premonition of death of child with abscess

Need For Control

External LOC associated with PB (Groth-Marnat McGarry & Newberry, 1981)

PB(precognition) increases perceived control under low LOC (Greenaway, Louis, & Hornsey, 2013)
Paranormal beliefs

Low education
Low intelligence
Low scientific exposure (Aarnio Irwin & Watt, 2007)
Low cognitive ability (Hergovich & Arendasy, 2005)
Less analytical, more intuitive cognitive style (Aarnio Lindeman Pennycook, Cheyne, Seli, Koehler, & Fugelsang, 2012)


Geophysical


Spirits


Conclusion
Unable to prove, however fits events most accurately

Roll’s neurological model provides detailed explanation of the occurrence of RSPK

With the notion of Rose as agent, theory accounts for most events (including ‘apportation’)

Conclusion
A difficult case to ‘debunk’ (large no. of witnesses etc.)

RSPK appears most plausible explanation

However, more research on the phenomenology of RSPK, to make a shift from theorization to empirical evidence (eg. Roll’s model)

Conclusion
With regards to paranormal belief systems, might be useful to shift focus from correlates of belief (who is more likely to believe) to the reasons behind the development of beliefs (why do they believe)

Worksop case important to parapsychology as a field, serving as the setting for a multiplicity of potential theoretical explanations: difficulty in debunking leading to battle of most likely theory?

Could lend further support to some theories over others, improving their reliability, strengthening the field’s theoretical base

Introduction
Theories
Conclusion
What are poltergeists?
What happened at Worksop
Natural causes
Paranormal causes
Paranormal beliefs
Fraud (pranks & trickery)
Eyewitness testimony
Geophysical
Spirits
RSPK

Does not account for event on 21st Feb
Rose wasn’t around

Very limited empirical data to support notions of RSPK

RSPK as an explanation for apportation is not supported by evidence, merely hypothesis



Explains the centrality of events around Rose (assuming she is the RSPK agent), as majority of events occurred in her presence

Could account for levitation and hovering of heavy/difficult to hold objects (sink, hot coal)

Would account for ‘apportation’ in accordance with Von Lucadou and Zahradnik (2004)



Strengths
Limitations
Need For Control

Social Marginality Hypothesis


Worldview Hypothesis


Psychodynamic Functions Hypothesis
Paranormal beliefs

Lower socioeconomic status
Female
Facet of a larger esoteric perspective
Stress/fear/state anxiety (Lange & Houran, 1999)
Low Education – Cognitive Deficits Hypothesis (Irwin, 2009)

PB associated with baa-d cognition

Correlates of PB:
Paranormal beliefs

Does not explain development of the beliefs

Lack of detail in case report

Lack of psychological assessments of experients
Paranormal beliefs - Limitations

Recapping Theories
Unlikely due to multiple witnesses/events
Deception
Faulty Eyewitness Testimony
Discounted by levitation of large objects
No way to disprove, but no way to prove either
RSPK
Recapping Theories
Recapping Theories
And Application
Conclusion
And Application
References
Cross-examination decreases accuracy of eyewitness testimony (Valentine & Maras, 2011)
1883
Stress
Full transcript