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Short Guide to Community Based Assessments

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Alexander Burian

on 4 September 2015

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Transcript of Short Guide to Community Based Assessments

Short Guide to Community Based Assessments
Why and What
Community Based Assessment

Why
Step 1: Map the Needs
Step 2: Map the Actors
Step 3: Link the Needs and Actors
Step 4: Identify Causes
Step 5: Analyze Findings
For More Resources and to Download the OGN Go to the DCAF/ISSAT Community of Practice:

http://issat.dcaf.ch/eng/Community-of-Practice
This overview looks at why a community-based assessment (CBA) of the criminal justice system is an option that might help to better address the needs of people and communities, including the most vulnerable. To set the scene, lets look at two key terms: assessment , and criminal-justice system . An assessment is a process of gathering and analysing information on needs to inform decision-making on programming. The criminal-justice system refers to the practices and institutions directed at preventing crime, sanctioning those who commit crimes, making efforts to rehabilitate them, and providing reparations to the victims.
This operational guidance note (OGN) provides advice on how to conduct a community-based assessment (CBA) of the criminal justice system under real-world constraints. A CBA starts with identifying the criminal justice needs of communities, then asks what institutions should, but do not do, to respond to these needs of the community, and finally looks for the reasons that account for why these institutions do not deliver services to meet the needs.
Summary of the 5 Steps
:
Map the needs
Real World Constraints
Mapping
Assessments are usually more complex than anticipated, especially in fragile and post-conflict contexts. Assessments are politically sensitive, time consuming and resource intensive. Moreover, the assessment team often has to operate under serious time and resource constraints.

In the criminal justice field, assessments often start with the defects of criminal justice institutions such as the police, the courts or the prisons. Such an actor-focused assessment looks for the reasons why the institutions are ineffective or inefficient in what they do. But it does not ask whether these institutions actually do what they should do. Programming developed on the basis of an actor-focused assessment will address certain institutional defects but may miss out on the problems and needs of communities.
One technique used in this tool is mapping, which is a process of gathering just the basic facts on the objects of interest, for instance on all criminal justice actors. Mapping is broad and complete but not deep and not detailed. A good mapping process produces a complete inventory and provides a bird’s-eye overview of all objects of interest.

FOCUS: Needs-based assessments helps institutions to do the right things right.

A CBA, on the other hand, starts with identifying the criminal justice needs of communities, then asks what institutions should but do not respond to these needs, and finally looks for the reasons that account for why these institutions do not deliver services to meet the needs. Such an approach grounds programme decisions in the needs of communities, links needs with institutions, and ensures a service orientation of criminal justice activities.
Map the actors
Stage 1 of the Community Based Assessment looks at where the criminal justice needs of communities arise from. These needs tend to arise from four groups of threats - two threat groups originate from within the community while the other two threat groups are directly caused by criminal justice actors:
Threats caused by other community members
(such as cases of robbery in certain areas, assaults on women during field work, extortion of merchants on a market, or attacks on minority groups by other community members);
Communal conflicts
(such as disputes over property and land, clashes over natural resources, or disagreements over religious practices);
Abuses inflicted by criminal justice actors
(such as ill-treatment in police custody, illegal searches at roadblocks set up by armed groups, or illegal detention by customary justice actors);
Inadequate services
provided by criminal justice actors (such as discriminatory practices by the police, undue delays in court proceedings, prison overcrowding, or taking bribes for services of criminal justice actors).
How?
The basic activities involved in mapping the criminal justice needs of a community are (see activity graph below to click through to each activity in detail):
1.gather data
2. determine respondent sample
3. triangulate data
4. document information.

The data compiled during the needs mapping process has to be organised. For each criminal justice need, a data sheet should be completed,
Risks?
The advantages and disadvantages of any needs-based analysis will need to be weighed up against the UN's preferred rights-based approach to justice and development. A needs-based approach might have the advantage of speed, but has the potential disadvantage of using preconceived concepts of vulnerability. A rights-based approach aims to give all recipients equal access and treatment.
Note
Comprehensive population needs surveys are generally not feasible within the time constraints of a CBA. Hence the identification of criminal justice needs must be based on a mapping process that uses a variety of less comprehensive data gathering methods that do not cover all communities. As a result, the combination of different methods, the composition of the sample of respondents and the triangulation of findings are critical factors for an effective CBA
Stage 2 of the CBA consists in mapping all criminal justice actors in order to determine, in stages 3 and 4, the reasons that account for why the actors do not meet the communities’ criminal justice needs. Stages 1 and 2 can be carried out in parallel and draw on some of the same sources of information.
Which Actors?
The mapping should cover all actors that are actually involved in criminal justice activities, irrespective of what they are called. For instance, the mapping covers not just institutions that are called “police” but all actors that actually carry out policing functions. This could involve an actor called “intelligence service”, “presidential guard”, or “neighbourhood watch”.
Non-state actors often play important roles in the provision of criminal justice services. The mapping should include non-state actors providing criminal justice functions such as armed militias, customary justice mechanisms, and private security companies.
Not just providers but also management and oversight functions

Management and oversight functions are core criminal justice actors. Ministries provide management support functions. Formal oversight actors include parliamentary committees, human rights commissions and independent review boards. Civil society actors (such as human rights organisations and media outlets) often engage in oversight of criminal justice providers such as the police and the courts. These management and oversight functions should be included in the mapping. The table aboves provides a graphic overview of generic categories of actors. The outputs and resources tabs provide an example of how actors may be categorized generally. The precise categories depend on the country in question.
Criminal justice actors are the focus of the mapping. However, other actors such as the military, intelligence, customs, border control and non-official armed groups cannot be ignored in the mapping process, in particular when they are involved in criminal justice functions, or when their relationship to criminal justice actors has to be clarified. For instance, defence forces often assume law enforcement functions in post-conflict contexts and their division of labour with the police is frequently a highly debated issue.
Related Actors
Management and oversight functions
Not just State but also Non-State
Activities rather than names
:
Link Actors and Needs
Stage 3 of the CBA consists in identifying which criminal justice actor(s) is/are responsible, in principle, to deliver services to meet the community need in question, or which actor/s directly cause/s the need. Again, the criminal justice needs of the communities are the starting point.
Guiding Questions
Does the need occur at the national, regional or local level? In what jurisdiction or area of responsibility?
Which actors (one or several, state or non-state, at national, regional or local level) should but are not, or only inadequately, delivering services to meet the need? Identify all criminal justice actors and the services that they may be responsible to deliver to meet the need in question.
Are there any other actors (formal and informal) that could respond to the same need or which may be responsible to deliver the same or a comparable service?
If no responsible actor can be identified, which criminal justice actors (within reason) should be responsible for the service?
Is the need caused directly by acts of commission or omission on the part of one or several criminal justice actors?
For every need identified, answers to some of the following questions will help to identify the responsible criminal justice actors:
Identify Causes
Stage 4 of the CBA consists in determining the institutional factors that account for why the responsible actors directly cause the criminal justice need in question or why they do not meet the need caused by others.

The Capacity and Integrity Framework (CIF) is a simple tool to help identify these institutional factors. In analysing an institution, the CIF distinguishes between two organisational levels (internal and external) and two quality levels (capacity and integrity).
CIF
The two organisational levels of an institution:
Internal:

its mandate, resources, organizational structures, policies and procedures
External:
its relations with other institutions

The two quality levels of an institution:
Capacity:
the existing resources, structures and procedures
Integrity:
respect for basic norms and values when using its capacity
Analyze findings
Stage 5, the final stage of the CBA, consists of putting together the CBA report to analyse the information and identify the key CBA findings.
What can I find in a CBA report
CBA report should include the following findings:


The total number criminal justice needs
The needs sorted according to seriousness of the serious human rights violations
The needs sorted according to prevalence
The needs sorted according to community or group affected
The needs sorted according to category (section 1.1), criminal justice actors responsible (section 3), and the institutional factors that account for why the needs are not met (section 4.1)
Define data collection methodology
Determine respondent sample
Introduction to Step 1

Stage 1 of the Community Based Assessment looks at
where the criminal justice needs of communities arise from
. These needs tend to arise from four groups of threats - two threat groups originate from within the community while the other two threat groups are directly caused by criminal justice actors:

Threats caused by other community members
(such as cases of robbery in certain areas, assaults on women during field work, extortion of merchants on a market, or attacks on minority groups by other community members);

Communal conflicts
(such as disputes over property and land, clashes over natural resources, or disagreements over religious practices);

Abuses inflicted by criminal justice actors
(such as ill-treatment in police custody, illegal searches at roadblocks set up by armed groups, or illegal detention by customary justice actors);

Inadequate services provided by criminal justice actors
(such as discriminatory practices by the police, undue delays in court proceedings, prison overcrowding, or taking bribes for services of criminal justice actors).
Whose Needs?

A society is not a homogenous whole but consists of various communities and groups that are characterized by ethnicity, location, religion, social class, gender and other factors. For instance, women, children and elderly people are likely to face different forms of security threats; or certain communities may be marginalised in a society and may be subject to harassment by criminal justice actors. A CBA should reach out to the various communities and groups of a society and capture the criminal justice needs they have. Marginalised groups should receive particular attention due to their vulnerable status
How
How to Map the Needs?

Comprehensive population needs surveys are generally not feasible within the time constraints of a CBA. Hence the identification of criminal justice needs must be based on a mapping process that uses a variety of less comprehensive data gathering methods that do not cover all communities. As a result, the combination of different methods, the composition of the sample of respondents and the triangulation of findings are critical factors for an effective CBA
Depending on the context and the circumstances of the CBA, different methods and techniques can be used to map the criminal justice needs. These methods fall into five categories: document review, select individual interviews, focus group interviews, small-scale surveys and observations. A combination of these data gathering methods should be used to map the criminal justice needs of communities
Document Review
A review of relevant documents will provide an initial overview of the criminal justice needs. Of particular use will be reports of human rights organisations (national and international), which will help to determine the most common and most serious human rights violations. Medical reports can provide information on injury and hence on security incidents. Reports on minorities and other vulnerable groups are useful for determining their specific needs. Public sources can include information about criminal trends and major types of disputes. Relevant academic articles and think tank reports can also provide useful information.

Click here for a list of possible sources
Semi-structured interviews use an interview guide with pre-determined questions that help steer but do not constrain the conversation with the respondent. The interview questions are prepared but open-ended, allowing the respondent to express her or his views in a conversation. The interview guide serves as a checklist and ensures that the same information is obtained from all respondents without restricting the conversation. The interviewer can probe topics as they arise and can pursue certain questions in more depth.

Frequently, semi-structured interviews are conducted with key informants. A key informant is a person with in-depth knowledge about the criminal justice needs in the community. Representatives of key civil society organisations (such as women’s organisations, youth groups, human rights groups and religious communities) will often be important key informants. Organisations that provide services to vulnerable groups and to victims of violence such as medical, legal welfare or psychological services usually also have good insight in what is happening to their client groups. In addition, journalists, especially those who cover crime and courts, can be a useful source of information and contacts.

For general tips on interviews click here:


For general procedures for semi-structured interviews click here:

Semi-Structured Interview
A review of relevant documents will provide an initial overview of the criminal justice needs. Of particular use will be reports of human rights organisations (national and international), which will help to determine the most common and most serious human rights violations. Medical reports can provide information on injury and hence on security incidents. Reports on minorities and other vulnerable groups are useful for determining their specific needs. Public sources can include information about criminal trends and major types of disputes. Relevant academic articles and think tank reports can also provide useful information.
Focus Group
Small-scale surveys with simple questionnaires can complement interviews and direct observations. The questionnaires could be used with respondents that have been interviewed, e.g. in a focus group process, or with a respondent sample that cannot be interviewed. Questionnaires can be designed in different ways: They can include open questions (“What are your greatest needs in terms of security and justice?”) or closed questions (“How many cases of cattle theft occurred in your community during the last four weeks? Please tick where appropriate: 0, 1-10, 11-20, 21-30.”). The respondents can be asked to rank the criminal justice needs they have (“Of the following ten threats, which are the three greatest threats to you?”). The respondents can also be asked to score their criminal justice needs (“On a scale of 1-5, what score would you give to the following ten threats?”).

Depending on the context and the circumstances of the CBA, other survey methods can be used to map the criminal justice needs a community. Community members could be invited to provide written comments and drop them in a comment box at the municipality. A telephone survey with a sample of community members could be carried out. Community members could be invited to participate in an SMS or an online survey.
Small scale survey
Direct observation is a way to collect spatial information about the criminal justice needs of the community and helps to crosscheck findings from interviews. Generally, direct observation should be carried out with key informants. Direct observation can be carried out in any location of interest such as a local market, a police station or a prison.
Transect walks are a specific form of direct observation. During the walk with key informants along a defined route across the community, the assessment team discusses anything noticed, facilitates exchanges by asking questions and making observations, and informally interviews any people met during the walk to get their views on the security threats, conflicts, abuses and service delivery deficits in the community. Transect walks introduce the assessment team to the community and its inhabitants.
Direct Observation
Individual interviews, group interviews, small-scale surveys and transect walks all imply decisions on the sample of respondents. Generally, the larger the size of the sample the better. But financial, time and human resource constraints usually limit the number of persons that can be reached in the course of a CBA. Hence the key is to aim for greater representativeness rather than a plain increase in the number of respondents. For instance, at least one sample community from each geographical region should be included; the sample should be drawn from all ethnic groups; minority and vulnerable groups should be included in the sample; not only heads of households but also other household members should be interviewed; and when choosing the sample respondents within a community or social group, they should be of different ages, gender and social status.
Triangulate Data
Whatever data gathering methods are used, the information obtained should be triangulated to ensure its trustworthiness. Triangulation can be achieved by using multiple sources, multiple methods and multiple assessors. Using multiple sources refers to multiple representatives of one type of source (e.g. interviews with several merchants at the main market) or to different sources of the same information (e.g. interviews with women, men and children about the same topic). Using multiple methods refers to comparing results obtained with different methods. Using multiple assessors refers to having an assessment team with a diversity of social and professional backgrounds, enhancing the range of perspectives in the assessment (Pretty, 1994).
Document the Information: Section 1 of Data Sheet
The data compiled during the needs mapping process has to be organised. For each criminal justice need, a data sheet should be completed: detailed description of the criminal justice need; persons or groups affected by it; and persons or groups causing it. The information in the data sheet should always be clearly sourced. Important data gaps should be clearly marked in the criminal justice need data sheet. At this stage section 1 of the data sheet should be completed
DATA SHEET
Introduction to Step 2

Stage 2 of the CBA consists in mapping all criminal justice actors in order to determine, in stages 3 and 4, the reasons that account for why the actors do not meet the communities’ criminal justice needs. Stages 1 and 2 can be carried out in parallel and draw on some of the same sources of information.
Which Actors?
Non-state actors often play important roles in the provision of criminal justice services. The mapping should include non-state actors providing criminal justice functions such as armed militias, customary justice mechanisms, and private security companies.
Not just providers but also management and oversight functions

Management and oversight functions are core aspects of the criminal justice system. Ministries provide management support functions. Formal oversight actors include parliamentary committees, human rights commissions and independent review boards. Civil society actors (such as human rights organisations and media outlets) often engage in oversight of criminal justice providers such as the police and the courts. These management and oversight functions should be included in the mapping.
Criminal justice actors are the focus of the mapping. However, other actors such as the military, intelligence, customs, border control and non-official armed groups cannot be ignored in the mapping process, in particular when they are involved in criminal justice functions, or when their relationship to criminal justice actors has to be clarified. For instance, defence forces often assume law enforcement functions in post-conflict contexts and their division of labour with the police is frequently a highly debated issue.
Related Actors
Not just State but also Non-State
Activities rather than names
:
Again, a combination of data gathering methods should be used to map the criminal justice actors and the findings should be triangulated.

Information on criminal justice actors is also collected during the mapping of criminal justice needs. In addition, further documents should be reviewed, other key informants should be interviewed, and different sites may be visited to map the criminal justice actors:
Define data collection methodology
Mapping Overview
State Law Enforcement Providers
Law Enforcement agencies
Border and customs services
Military/intelligence with powers
State justice providers
Courts (criminal, military, ...)
Prosecution services
Defense counsel
State corrections providers
Prison system (guards, administrators)
Courts and police
Non-state law enforcement providers
Private military and security companies
Community self-protection groups
Non-state law enforcement providers
Non-state justice providers
Customary justice providers
Legal assistance bodies
Public presentation programs
Non-state corrections providers
Customary corrections providers
Private security companies
PROVIDERS
MANAGEMENT & GOVERNANCE
NON-STATE
STATE
Ministries
justice, interior, finance
Legislative bodies
parliamentary committees
Executive bodies
national security advisor
Judicial councils/service commissions
Independent Oversight bodies
Anti-corruption bodies
Unions and professional associations
Non-governmental organisations (human rights, judicial, corrections ...)
Academic institutions, think tanks
Media
Customary and traditional leaders

Of particular use for the mapping of criminal justice actors will be a review of a peace agreement and related accords, the national constitution, relevant domestic laws and statutes, and relevant government policies and strategies. Reports by national and international think tanks and academic institutions may also include useful information.
Additional documents
Additional key informants for the mapping of actors include representatives of criminal justice institutions; members of government, members of parliament, political party representatives, and representatives of former warring factions; and representatives of international organisations, members national and international non-governmental organisations, academics, researchers and journalists.
Additional key informants
Visits of offices and other locations where criminal justice actors are based will provide additional information on these actors.
Additional Observations
Again, the information obtained should be triangulated to ensure its trustworthiness. At a minimum, two knowledgeable sources should be consulted on each criminal justice actor, one representative of the actor and an external source.
Triangulation of Findings
For each actor identified, a brief profile should be established that summarizes essential information on the actor including contact details, history, functions, leadership, personnel, organization, infrastructure, and budget. The profile pays particular attention to the actor’s mandate, the actual activities of the actor and the services the actor should deliver, as well as service delivery deficits. For state institutions, it is important to distinguish between what is legally mandated and what is actually the case: the actual set-up of a state institution can differ considerably from its legal framework, and the actual activities of the institution can vary significantly from its mandated responsibilities.
The information in the profile should always be clearly sourced. Important data gaps should be clearly marked in the actor profile.

Profiling of Actors
Proposed Format for Actor Profile
All identified criminal justice actors should be classified according to locations, functions, size, representation and other criteria in order to establish service delivery gaps and overlaps.
Classification of Actors
How
Fill out section 2 of data sheets
Stage 3 of the CBA consists in identifying which criminal justice actor(s) is/are responsible, in principle, to deliver services to meet the community need in question, or which actor/s directly cause/s the need. Again, the criminal justice needs of the communities are the starting point.
Guiding Questions
Does the need occur at the national, regional or local level? In what jurisdiction or area of responsibility?
Which actors (one or several, state or non-state, at national, regional or local level) should but are not, or only inadequately, delivering services to meet the need? Identify all criminal justice actors and the services that they may be responsible to deliver to meet the need in question.
Are there any other actors (formal and informal) that could respond to the same need or which may be responsible to deliver the same or a comparable service?
If no responsible actor can be identified, which criminal justice actors (within reason) should be responsible for the service?
Is the need caused directly by acts of commission or omission on the part of one or several criminal justice actors?

Fill out section 3 of data sheets
The fourth stage of the CBA consists in determining the institutional factors that account for why the responsible actors directly cause the criminal justice need in question or why they do not meet the need caused by others.

The Capacity and Integrity Framework (CIF) is a simple tool to help identify these institutional factors. In analysing an institution, the CIF distinguishes between two organisational levels (internal and external) and two quality levels (capacity and integrity).

The two organisational levels of an institution:
Internal:
its mandate, resources, organizational structures, policies and procedures
External:
its relations with other institutions

The two quality levels of an institution:
Capacity:
the existing resources, structures and procedures
Integrity:
respect for basic norms and values when using its capacity
Introduction to Step 4

CIF
For every responsible actor identified in stage 3 of the CBA, each of these four categories should be considered to determine all institutional factors that account for why one or several actors directly cause(s) the need in question or why they do not meet the need caused by others. The following questions correspond to the four categories of the CIF and help to identify these institutional factors.
Internal Capacity Deficits
Internal Integrity Deficits
External Capacity Deficits
Internal Integrity Deficits
Common Criminal Justice Needs
The following provides an overview of common criminal justice needs, particularly in post-conflict and other fragile contexts, and typical institutional factors that account for why the actors directly cause the needs in question or why they do not meet the need caused by others.
Section 4 of the Data Sheet
The answers to the questions in this section should be inserted in section 4 of the criminal justice need data sheets
The fifth and final stage of the CBA consists in putting together the CBA report to analyse the information and identify the key CBA findings.
Report
The CBA report should include the following findings:

• The total number criminal justice needs
• The needs sorted according to seriousness of the serious human rights violations
• The needs sorted according to prevalence
• The needs sorted according to community or group affected
• The needs sorted according to category, criminal justice actors responsible, and the institutional factors that account for why the needs are not met

It is also useful to draw a chart of the entire criminal justice chain and indicate where the needs occur in the chain. This will help to identify the weakest links in the chain.

Chart of the Criminal Justice Chain
UNODC Example
The mapping should cover all actors that are actually involved in criminal justice activities, irrespective of what they are called. For instance, the mapping covers not just institutions that are called “police” but all actors that actually carry out policing functions. This could involve an actor called “intelligence service”, “presidential guard”, or “neighbourhood watch”.
Management and oversight functions
General Categories of Actors
What
Summary
Introduction to Step 3

Introduction to Step 5

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Click on the link to download the print version:
http://issat.dcaf.ch/eng/content/view/full/9764
Remember to map all actors involved in criminal justice activities, not just those that are obvious
Police Agency
Municipal Police
Neighbourhood watch
Presidential Guard
Gendarmerie
Intelligence Service
Remember that non-state actors can and do play very important roles in criminal justice
State Criminal Justice Institutions
Ministry of Justice
Prosecutors
Police
Non-state actors
Armed militias
Customary justice
Private security companies
Remember different actors have different roles, functions and responsibilities for management or oversight.
MANAGEMENT
Ministry
Police Agency
FORMAL OVERSIGHT
Parliament
Human Rights Commission
Indepedent Review Board
OTHER OVERSIGHT
Civil Society
Media
International Organisations
MAPPING OF POLICING ACTORS
CLICK HERE TO READ MORE
CLICK HERE TO READ MORE
Remember to look at actors that may have different mandates but actually play an influential or even leading role in criminal justice
Customs
Military
Non-official armed groups
CLICK HERE TO READ MORE
Click on the link to download the print version:
http://issat.dcaf.ch/eng/Home/Community-of-Practice/Resource-Library/Tools/General-Categories-of-Criminal-Justice-Actors
To view the detailed Community Based Assessment Guide you can visit the online version - where you can also find other useful tools and guides

http://issat.dcaf.ch/eng/content/view/full/9502
Download the source:
http://issat.dcaf.ch/eng/Home/Community-of-Practice/Resource-Library/Other-Documents/Sources-of-information-on-needs-and-actors-in-the-criminal-justice-chain
IDENTIFY CRIMINAL JUSTICE NEEDS of COMMUNITIES
WHAT INSTITUTIONS SHOULD, BUT DO NOT DO, TO RESPOND TO NEEDS
LOOK FOR REASONS WHY INSTITUTIONS DO NOT DELIVER SERVICES
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