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Parts of speech

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Luisa Camacho

on 28 August 2014

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Transcript of Parts of speech

Word Transformations
Developed by Luisa Camacho
A word or phrase which expresses the action or state of being with a sentence.
Generally, it makes more sense to define a verb by what it does than by what it is.

Just as the "same" word (rain or snow, for example) can serve as either a noun or a verb, the same verb can play a number of different roles depending on how it's used.
An auxiliary verb determines the mood or tense of another verb in a phrase, are : be, have, and do. The modal auxiliaries include can, could, may, must, should, will, and would.
Auxiliary verbs
Lexical verbs
A lexical verb (also known as a full or main verb) is any verb in English that isn't have an auxiliary verb: it conveys a real meaning and doesn't depend on another verb.
A dynamic verb indicates an action or process.
Dynamic Verbs
Stative Verbs
A stative verb (such as be, have, know, like, own, and seem) describes a state, situation, or preference, it´s not common to use in other tense than simple present.
A finite verb expresses tense and can occur on its own in a main clause and express a particular tense.
Finite verb
Nonfinite verb
A nonfinite verb (an infinitive or participle) doesn't show a distinction in tense and can occur on its own only in a dependent phrase or clause, no express a tense.
Regular verbs
A regular verb (also known as a weak verb) forms its past tense and past participle by adding -d or –ed.
Irregular Verbs
An irregular verb (also known as a strong verb) doesn't form the past tense by adding -d or –ed.
A transitive verb is followed by a direct object.
Transitive verb
Intransitive verbs
An intransitive verb doesn't take a direct object.

a word (other than a pronoun) used to identify any of a class of people, places, or things (common noun ), or to name a particular one of these ( proper noun ).
A noun is a word that names a person, animal, or thing.
Noun usage
Proper nouns name specific people, places, events, institutions, magazines, books, plays, and so forth, and are written with initial capital letters.
Proper nouns
Reefer to physical things and living beings (bread, woman).
Concrete nouns
Abstract nouns to concepts (greed, unhelpfulness).
Some nouns are concrete and abstract in different meanings, e.g. cheek is concrete when it refers to a part of the face and abstract when it means‘ impertinence’.
Abstract nouns
As a grammatical class, nouns satisfy most or all of the following tests.
Grammar and the nouns
Number: they have a singular and a plural form: one car, two cars one child, several children.
Determiners: they can be preceded by a, an, or the: a child an apple the cars
Number and determiniers
Modifiers: they can be modified by an adjective placed before them: a young child a ripe apple the new car.
Phrases: they can form the headword of a noun phrase:
a ripe red apple ready to eat
the new cars on the forecourt.
Modifiers and phrases
A word or phrase naming an attribute, added to or grammatically related to a noun to modify or describe it.

Adjectives are words that refer to the qualities of people, things, or ideas, or which group them into classes.
Most adjectives can be used with a noun and usually come immediately before it in the sentence:a blue flower; a slow train.

When adjectives are used in this way they are said to modify the noun. Most adjectives can be used after verbs like be, seem, or appear in sentences like this: The test was positive.
Attributive adjectives
In such sentences, the adjective forms the complement of the sentence and completes the meaning of the sentence subject.
Predicative adjectives
Many adjectives can be graded by adding a modifier before or after them:
a very slow grower
modifier adjective

Comparative adjective is used in order to compare two or more nouns, superlative is used to express the the most of something.
absolute comparative superlative
sad Sadder saddest
unusual more unusual most unusual
Comparative and
a superlative:
Some adjectives describe the qualities of a person, thing, or idea; they tell us about its qualities — whether it was large or small, red or green. For example:
a stupendous achievement; an exciting proposal.
Qulitiatives adjectives.

Other adjectives help to divide persons, things, or ideas into classes; they tell us which of a number of groups they fall into — nuclear or non-nuclear? annual, biennial, or triennial?
the French language; an annual event
It was a very annual event.
Classifiying adjectives.
A word or phrase that modifies or qualifies an adjective, verb, or other adverb or a word-group, expressing a relation of place, time , circumstance, manner, cause, degree , etc. (e.g., gently, quite, then, there).
Use as adverbials
They are often used as sentence adverbials, or adjuncts, providing information about, for example, place, time, and manner.
Place: her, away, somewhere.
Time: soon, already still.
Manner: easily, deftly, slowly.
Frecuency: always , never, seldom.
(How often?)
Degree: almost, nearly, just.
(To what degree?)
Developed by Luisa Camacho
Adverbs can also be used to modify adjectives and thus form adjective phrases:
adverb adjective
very easy
rather attractive
Use with adjectives and other adverbs
They can work in a similar way with other adverbs to make adverb phrases:
adverb adverb
quite soon
extremely slowly

Many adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding −ly:
slow + ly slowly
Not all adverbs end in −ly, and some of the most common adverbs are not formed in this way. For example:
Afterward rather very
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