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BRAIN

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Sabrina Law

on 13 April 2015

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Transcript of BRAIN

Introduction
the control center of our bodies
interprets senses
engages body movement
controls behavior and mental processes
billions of neurons and neural "pools"
3 parts:
Prosencephalon (forebrain)
Mesencephalon (midbrain)
Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
The Midbrain
The Forebrain
Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
consists of 2 parts:
The Brain
Hillary Ta, Mary Zhao, Sabrina Law

(Prosencephalon)
Consists of:

Cerebrum
Limbic System
Diencephalon
Cerebrum
Largest part of the brain
perception, imagination, thought, judgment, sensation
Cerebral cortex: the surface of the cerebrum
gray matter
crumpled and folded, forms gyri and sulci
six layers of nerve cells and nerve pathways

4 Lobes:
I.
Frontal Lobe
at the front of the cerebrum
Primary motor cortex: voluntary control of skeletal muscles
pyramidal cells and pyramidal system make the pathway
Prefrontal cortex
higher mental processes: planning, personality, memory, decision making,
communication

II.
Parietal Lobes (2)
-behind the frontal lobe, top and back of the brain
-primary sensory cortex: conscious perception of touch, taste, and temperature
-somatosensory cortex: monitors the sensory cortex

myelencephalon
: comprising the medulla oblongata and the lower part of the fourth ventricle
metencephalon
: consisting of the pons, cerebellum function
Function:

The medulla transmits signals between the spinal cord and the higher parts of the brain; it also controls such autonomic functions as heartbeat and respiration.
Myelencephalon
the posterior portion of the brain stem and consists or is the medulla oblongata.
III.
Temporal Lobes (2)
behind the temples of the head
Primary auditory cortex and olfactory cortex: conscious perception of sound and smell
Wernicke’s area

IV.
Occipital Lobe
at the very back of the brain
primary visual cortex: sense of sight
visual center that interprets all light, color, and other visual stimuli

Function: Autonomic Functions, Breathing, Conduction Pathway for Nerve Tracts, Digestion, Heart Rate,Swallowing, Sneezing
myelencephalon is the most inferior portion of the brainstem and most dangerous part to injure because controls life sustaining functions

As a part of the brain stem, it also helps transfer neural messages from the brain to the spinal cord.
2 Hemispheres:
Left: controls the right side, language, logical thought
Right: controls the left side, emotions, processes the whole, creativity

myelencephalon continued...
composed largely of tracts carrying signals between the rest of the brain and the body. It is a complex network of about 100 tiny nuclei that occupies the central core of the brain stem.
Limbic System
a section within the cerebrum
the “emotional brain”
Functions:
establishing emotional states and behavioral drives
linking the conscious, intellectual functions of the cerebral cortex with unconscious functions of brain stem
facilitating memory storage and retrieval

The
medulla
is easily the most important part of the brain. It's functions are involuntary. As a part of the brain stem, it also helps transfer neural messages from the brain to the spinal cord.
The various nuclei of the reticular formation are involved in a variety of functions, however — including sleep, attention (definitely important for language), movement, the maintenance of muscle tone, and various cardiac, circulatory, and respiratory reflexes
Metencephalon
Consists of cerebellum and pons
Functions: Arousal, Balance, Cardiac Reflexes, Circulation, Fine Muscle Movement, Muscle Tone maintenance, Sleep
located below the posterior portion of the cerebrum and above the medulla oblongata.
Pons
Location: Area of the hindbrain that sits directly above the medulla
Function: Connects upper and lower parts of the brain
serves as a message station between several areas of the brain. It helps relay messages from the cortex and the cerebellum
Without the pons, the brain would not be able to function because messages would not be able to be transmitted,or passed along
plays a key role in sleep and dreaming
Cerebellum
chapter 14
extremely important for being able to perform everyday voluntary tasks such as walking and writing and being able to stay balanced and upright
Location: Lower area of the brain, below the pons
Function:
Responsible for balance and coordination of muscles and the body
contains over 50% of the total number of neurons in the brain.
Cerebellum continued...
The cerebellum is important for motor learning. It plays a major role in adapting and fine-tuning motor programs to make accurate movements through a trial-and-error process (e.g., learning to hit a baseball).
Although the cerebellum is most understood in terms of its contributions to motor control, it is also involved in certain cognitive functions, such as language
smallest region of the brain that
acts as a sort of relay station for auditory and visual information.
Protection & Support of the Brain
Protected by:
bones of the cranium
cranial meninges
cerebrospinal fluid
brain is biochemically isolated from general circulation by the blood-brain barrier


Cranial Meninges
- Layers that make up the cranial meninges (dura mater, arachnoid and pia mater- continuous with those of the spinal chord)

consists of outer and inner fibrous layers
outer layer is fused to the periosteum of the cranial bones and so there is no epidural space comparable to that surrounding the spinal chord.
outer (endosteal) and inner (meningeal) layers are separated by a slender gap that contains tissue fluids and blood vessels, including large venous channels or dural sinuses.

THE DURA MATER
Arachnoid
consists of: arachnoid membrane and cells and fibers of the subarachnoid space
arachnoid membrane covers the brain and provides a smooth surface that DOESN'T follow the brains underlying folds
PIA MATER
sticks to surface of the brain
anchored by processes of astrocytes
extends into every fold and curve
accompanies the branches of cerebral blood vessel as they go through surface of brain to reach internal structures.
cranial meninges
massive cranial bones provide mechanical protection but is also a threat because it is like a car hitting a tree
Dural Folds
like safety belts that hold the brain in position
provides additional stabilization and support to the brain
three dural: falx cerebi, tentorium cerebelli, falx cerebelli

completely surrounds and bathes the exposed surfaces of the Central nervous system

CEREBROSPINAL FLUID
cushions delicate neural structures
supports the brain
transports nutrients, chemical messengers and waste products.
Falx Cerebi
fold of the dura mater that projects between the cerebral hemisphere.
Tentorium Cerebelli
seperates and protects the cerebellar hemispheres from those of the cerebrum
contains the transverse sinus
Fax cerebelli
divides the two cerebellar hemispheres along the midsagittal line inferior to the tentorim cerebelli

Main structures:
Hypothalamus
Thalamus
Amygdala
Hippocampus


Diencephalon
Located between the two hemispheres, just above the midbrain
intertwined with the limbic system to control emotions and memory
Structures:
hypothalamus
thalamus
epithalamus-pineal gland
subthalamus

relays the sensory information between brain regions and controls autonomic functions of the peripheral nervous system
connects the endocrine and nervous system


The Midbrain
the smallest region of the brain.
Red Nucleus&Substantia Nigra: involved with controlling body movement.
darkly pigmented substantia nigra are where large numbers of dopamine producing neurons are located.
Parkinson's disease is associated with the degeneration of neurons in the substantia nigra.
Roof Plate of the midbrain
Superior Colliculus: receives input from the retina and the visual cortex and participates in a variety of visual reflexes, particularly the tracking of objects in the visual field.
Inferior Colliculus: receives both crossed and uncrossed auditory fibres and projects upon the medial geniculate body, the auditory relay nucleus of the thalamus.
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