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History of Higher Education in the US
Transcript of History of Higher Education in the US
in the United States The Beginning: The Servicemen's Readjustment
Act of 1944 (The G.I. Bill of Rights) 1946 The Truman Commission The current situation in higher education:
978 Public Two Year Institutions
678 Public Four Year Institutions
1,543 Private Non-Profit Four Year Institutions
649 Private For-Profit Four Year Institutions Which brings us to today... Founding of the
9 Colonial Colleges The earliest institutions in the US
had religious affiliations. Current
Name Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka - ruled that racial segregation in education be outlawed. Opened the door to the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Title II addresses provisions against discrimination.
Title III calls for the desegregation of public facilities.
Title VI had the most significant impact as it threatened to cut government funding to schools that did not provide equal opportunity for all students and provided the opportunity to sue the colleges and universities for monetary damages.
The legislation also began Affirmative Action that wanted to end discrimination in the admissions process to colleges/universities. It also reignited the Women's Rights Movement. The Civil Rights Movement Recent Legal Issues in Higher Ed Founding of the 9 Colonial Colleges Harvard
University The College
& Mary Yale
University 1636 1693 1701 1746 Princeton
University Formerly "College
of Philadelphia" 1751 University of
Pennsylvania 1754 Columbia
University 1764 Formerly "Rhode
Island College" Brown
University 1766 Rutgers
University Formerly "Queen's College" 1769 Dartmouth
College Eight of the nine colonial colleges had ties to Christianity from the start. The exception was the College of Philadelphia known as University of Pennsylvania.
The beginning education curriculum was to prepare white men for the ministry.
Parents of Harvard College students in the 17th century were mainly ministers.
Religious foundations set a tone for the future of education. The Morrill Act of 1862 Named after Justin Morrill, a farmer, who worked his way to congress
First Federally Funded Program for Colleges
Land was given to colleges to use or to sell and develop an endowment to be used towards education in agriculture, science, and teaching.
Significant in causing expansion of colleges in the US, particularly Historically Black Colleges Women
Oberlin College in Ohio becomes the first college to admit women.
First three women graduate from college with a regular degree received by completing an educational programs equal to that of their male counterparts. 1859
The world enters into a new era of free inquiry, with an empahsis placed on scientific research. Charles Darwin's
"The Origin Of Species" Presented by: Jennifer Cook & Mark Fabbi
MSHE - Foundations of Higher Education - Fall 2012
Weslyan College becomes the first degree granting institution exclusively for women 1833 1836 1841 The Morrill Act of 1890 Called for the expansion of funding for more complete assistance to college
Eliminated federal funding to institutions that denied education based on a person's race, with the exception of "seperate but equal" institutions The Dartmouth College Case 1819 New Hampshire legislature tried to turn Dartmouth College, a private school, into a public state university by shifting decisions for trustee appointments to the governor.
The court ruled in favor of Dartmouth College. Interference from the legislature in private institutions was deemed unconstitutional. Dartmouth was allowed to return to its former private status. Established the legality of a private sector that would be free from government intrusion. Rise of the Modern Graduate School 1875 Johns Hopkins University is founded.
833,337 Associate's Degrees
1,602,480 Bachelor's Degrees
611,693 Master's Degrees
140,505 Doctorate Degrees References U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). The condition of education 2012. (Report No. NCES 2012-045). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=72 What
happened? Why was it important? President Truman commissioned 28 people and charged them with studying higher education in the US and reporting their findings.
The main recommendation of the commission was to remove all barriers to higher education and create a network of public, community based colleges. 1960's Community Colleges exploded in the 1960's. By 1970 there were 1,100 "junior" colleges. Number of Degrees Conferred in 2010 of students take at least one online course while completing their degree. 44% 96% of all traditional universities offer some kind of online coursework Important Events for Minority Groups African Americans 1826 First black man graduates with his Bachelor's degree from Middlebury College in Vermont. 1854 Lincoln University (formerly the Ashmun Institute) was founded. First degree granting historically black university. 1835 Oberlin Colleges becomes the first college to regularly admit black students. 1863 Emancipation Proclimation
In order to be admitted to a college, a student needed to know Latin or Greek. There was significant focus on the "classics". 1901 First Community College Jolliet College becomes the first "Junior College" in the US Provided benefits to returning WWII veterans, military personnel, and their families
The GI Bill was not race, gender, or ethnic specific. Many black and hispanics benefited from this federal policy and were able to become educated and change their economic status.
This bill had an enormous impact on colleges and universities throughout the US as the legislature included a college tuition benefit. There was a major increase in enrollment and economic contributions through the expanding of campuses to accommodate the large number of returning servicemen. 1914 World War I 1930 The Great Depression 1939 World War II Financial Aid 1958 National Defense Education Act (Known today at the Perkins Loan)
Creation of the Federal Work Study Program
The Higher Education Act
Saw the start of programs that what we now know of as the Pell Grant and the Stafford Loan. 1964 1965 Rise of the Community College 1906 The NCAA was Created Originally created to investigate safety in football
Later turned towards organizing by-laws, committees, and overseeing championships and the lucrative business of college sports This Civil Rights Act of 1964 2008 Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin Abigail Fisher was denied admission at the University of Texas in 2008
Case questions the admission policy decision, challenging affirmative action in the state and could have a major impact on higher education for the future. 2012 Penn State University The Jerry Sandusky scandal surrounding the cover up among university officials.
The case highlighted the failure to comply with the Clery Act
The school received a warning from the Middle States Association Accreditation Committee and sanctions were imposed by the NCAA. Trends in Higher Education
Thousands of people from various countries began coming to the US to study
Study abroad programs provide accessibility to diverse cultures
Fulbright Scholarship Program - established in 1945 - international student exchange program for students that embrace diversity and contribute to a global society. Globalization Online Learning Since 1996, online education has experienced a major surge as more people adopted the internet. Distance learning programs have continued to expand.
Coursera offers classes from Stanford, Johns Hopkins, Cal. Tech and more for free! Brubacher, J., & Rudy, W. (1997). Higher education in transition (Fourth ed.). New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. Biemiller, L., (2011, October 16). A land-grant visionary's notion of home. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com.ezproxy2.library.drexel.edu/article/A-Land-Grant-Visionarys/129422/ Ties to the Past There are still 900 religiously affiliated universities in the US Today Women's Rights and Title IX Title IX
Part of the Education Amendments of 1972
Makes it clear that colleges cannot discriminate on gender.
Focuses on the institution and all programs that receive federal funding
Created ripple effects in collegiate athletics
Ensure colleges are meeting the requirements
Some argue that the legislation has increased participation in women sports, but has had the opposite effect on men's sports. 1905 Carnegie Foundation Created Founded for research, reporting, and standardizing education Some single sex schools are still debating going coed. Altbach, P., Gumport, P., & Berdahl, R. (2011). American higher education in the 21st century (Third Edition ed.). Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press. Wilhelm, I. (2011, October 23). Fulbright keeps moving forward despite budget uncertainty. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retreived from http://chronicle.com.ezproxy2.library.drexel.edu/article/Fulbright-Presses-Forward-/129499/ Dartmouth College v. Woodward. (n.d.). The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law. Retrieved from http://www.oyez.org/cases/1792-1850/1818/1818_0/ Column Five Media. (2011, May 1). The evolution of online learning technologies. Rasmussen College. Retrieved from http://www.rasmussen.edu/student-life/blogs/online-learning/evolution-of-online-learning-technologies/ Council for Christian Colleges & Universities - About CCCU. (n.d.). Council for Christian Colleges & Universities. Retrieved from http://www.cccu.org/about National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2012) Retrived from www.ncaa.org Lipka, S. (2007). GAO examines effects of Title IX. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retreived from http://chronicle.com.ezproxy2.library.drexel.edu/article/GAO-Examines-Effects-of-Title/3075/ Schmidt, P. (2012, October 10). Supreme court hearing in Texas admissions case exposes gap in affirmative action law. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retreived from http://chronicle.com.ezproxy2.library.drexel.edu/article/Supreme-Court-Hearing-Exposes/134976/ Wolverton, B. (2012, July 1). Records suggest Penn State officials knew sexual nature of Sandusky encounter. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retreived from http://chronicle.com.ezproxy2.library.drexel.edu/article/Records-Raise-More-Questions/132725/ Formerly "New College" Formerly "Collegiate School" Formerly "The College of NJ" Formerly "King's College" U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2011). Degree-granting institutions, by control and level of institution: Selected years, 1949-50 through 2010-11. Retreived from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d11/tables/dt11_279.asp