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Climate Change

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Fatin Nazurah

on 17 October 2013

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Transcript of Climate Change

Climate Change
&
Food Supply
Climate
Change
Any

change in climate over time
, whether due to

natural variability or as a result of human activity.
CAUSES
Enhanced greenhouse effect

Burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil (increased the concentration of atmospheric CO2)

PRIMARY EFFECTS
Warmer and more acidic oceans

Melting ice caps and rising sea levels

Extreme weather conditions

Global warming due to heat being trapped by atmosphere
Food
Supply
The
production
and
availability of food security


Accessibility
Quality
Type
Situation varies
from region
to region.
crops vary in their response to climate change
Impact of Climate Change
on Food
CLIMATE
CHANGE
affects
SOIL TEMPERATURE & MOISTURE LEVELS
TEMPERATURE & RAINFALL
changes
Climate change likely will interact with atmospheric gases, fertilizers, insects, plant pathogens, weeds, and the soil's organic matter to produce unanticipated responses.
CLIMATE
CHANGE
FOOD
SUPPLY
CLIMATE CHANGE
IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE
CLIMATE
CHANGE
FOOD
SUPPLY
impact of
on
DROUGHTS
FLOODS
SPREAD OF
CROPS PEST
SPECIES
ENDANGERMENT
AND LOSS OF
BIODIVERSITY
Arab Spring!
Droughts
Food Shortage
Rocketing Food Prices
droughts
spread of
crops pest
floods
Land that is usually dry is submerged by large amounts of water.
floods
Prolonged period with little or no rainfall.
FLOODS
droughts
Crop Yield Reduction
Extreme weather events caused significant yield reductions in some years.

Warmer temperatures:
- make many crops grow more quickly
- could also
reduce yields








Faster growth reduces the amount of time seeds take to grow and mature.
CROP YIELD REDUCTION:
If the rates of rice yield decline due to thermal stress are broadly validated, and assuming that temperature increases consistent with the latest IPCC data (0.14°C to 0.58°C per decade)
tropical grain crop yields may decrease by 2% to 12% by the year 2020, and by 7% to 29% by the year 2050.

US: 70% of the grain grown is fed to farmed animals.

"Large increase in sterile cereal and legume crops in Africa (Sanchez, 2005) due to
Some crops and other plants
may respond favorably to increased atmospheric CO2
,
growing more vigorously and using water more efficiently.
thermal stress."
Increase in ocean temperatures will cause some species of sea animals to lose their ability to live and reproduce.
Source: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/agriculture.html

species
endangerment
Cod in the North Atlantic require water temperatures below 54°F.

Even sea-bottom temperatures above 47°F can
reduce their ability to reproduce
and
for young cod to survive
.

Species endangerment and extinction and loss of biodiversity
– food chain interlinked; threaten livelihood of species important to our food supply


e.g. In parts of America, they’ve lost 80% of their honeybees, which is the main workers of our honey.
Mediterranean fishes are losing their biodiversity.

- Global warming has increased and intensified heat waves




- Increase in prevalence of parasites and diseases.



- Earlier spring, and warmer winters
- Increased rainfall (for moisture-reliant pathogens)
- Pathogens can thrive



loss of
livestock
Animals killed directly:


Losses of more than 5000 animals from one heat wave:


On land:



In oceans

- Affect aquatic life in warmer waters
e.g. suspected that a bacterial shell disease caused the large die
off events of lobsters in southern New England.




FOOD
PRODUCTION
CLIMATE
CHANGE
impact of
on
INCREASING ATMOSPHERIC CO2 LEVELS
INCREASE
GREENHOUSE
GAS EMISSION
→ Enhanced global warming

→ Raising animals for food (grazing land and crops) now uses 30% of land .

→Raising animals for food produces more
greenhouse gas emissions than all forms of
transportation combined.

(UN News Center, 2006)
Deforestation to create land for agriculture
- Burning of forests
- Decreased trees

Increase release of CFCs
→ greenhouse gases cool the stratosphere, where
the ozone layer is located
→ ozone depletion happens more quickly in the
presence of ice crystal
→ ozone hole expands slightly, allows more UV
light to pass through, increases global
warming


(NASA, n.d.)
THE SINGAPORE
CONTEXT

→ price of grain increases
→ price of meat and dairy products increases
→ anxiety and panic


→ imports over 90% of our food supply
→ extremely vulnerable to such drastic changes


→ despite small population size, likely increase in population to
6.9 million in 2030 from current 5.3million
→ strain already limited resources and food provisioning capability




'07-'08 GLOBAL
FOOD CRISIS
SUPPLY CRUNCH IN KEY FOOD ITEMS (i.e. GRAIN)
SINGAPORE (OPEN ECONOMY)
SINGAPORE
SECONDARY EFFECT
OF CLIMATE CHANGE
ON
FOOD QUALITY
Trade-off between quantity and quality of food
Decrease nutritional value of food
→ rise in atmospheric levels of
CO2
→ changes how plants metabolise
important nutrients
→ alters food quality and nutrition
levels
→ lower protein levels of crops such
as wheat and rice
SECONDARY EFFECT
OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON
FOOD QUALITY
FOOD
VULNERABILITY
-Vulnerability of food systems
not determined by
environmental stress per se,

- Determined by how we
respond to control the
impact by climate change
on food supply. (Changes in
society.)
STRATEGIES TO COMBAT
FOOD INSECURITY BY
CLIMATE CHANGE
ADAPTATION OF AGRICULTURE
- Changing ways of managing agriculture

1. Land and Crop Management
2. Livestock Management
3. Manure Management
GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD
- Less fuel consumption

- Reduced fertilizer use and N2O emissions

- Withstand greater variations in weather and
climate

- Stabilize and increase food supplies
IMPROVE FOOD DISTRIBUTION
- Infrastructural and non-infrastructural controls on food distribution


1. Improve Transport infrastructure

2. Improve Food handling technology and regulation

3. Provide adequate source and supply logistics
INCREASE ECONOMIC ACCESS
TO FOOD

Price mechanisms and policies could be
designed

Regional specialization in food production and
regional trade

Economic growth will lead to income and
employment generation

Stability in governance supported by effective
pool of human and institutional resources
Low Irregular Rainfall
Land Dries Up
Barren Land
Increased Temperatures
Increased Temperatures
Extreme Intense Rainfall
2000 Mozambique Floods
Increased Temperatures
Growth of Crop Pests
Crop Loss
10-16%
References
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.framinghamma.gov/DocumentCenter/Home/View/933
Vidal, J. (2013, April 13). Climate change: how a warming world is a threat to our food supplies. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/apr/13/climate-change-threat-food-supplies
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (n.d.). Climate Change 2007: Working Group I: The Physical Science Basis. Retrieved from http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/faq-10-1.html
Increases in extreme rainfall linked to global warming. (2013, February 01). Science Daily. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130201100036.htm
Griffin, C. (2013, September 03). Climate change drives spread of crop pests: Serious impacts for food security. Science World Report. Retrieved from http://www.scienceworldreport.com/articles/9224/20130903/climate-change-drives-spread-crop-pests-serious-impacts-food-security.htm
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/agriculture.html
Fox, M. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/01/09/us-climate-food-idUSTRE50804F20090109
Karl, M. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/agriculture.html

References
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/gases/n2o.html
Cameron, K. C. (2002, December). The use of a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide (dcd), to decrease nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide emissions in a simulated grazed and irrigated grassland. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1111/j.1475-2743.2002.tb00258.x/asset/j.1475-2743.2002.tb00258.x.pdf?v=1&t=hllqmegq&s=868b304b6bce9aa19b77ae2db183641799b4cf95
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.europabio.org/can-gm-crops-help-fight-against-climate-change
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nespal.org/sirp/waterinfo/state/awd/agwaterdemand.htm
Drew Gneiser (2012, July). Retrieved from http://fmscblog.com/from-the-field/getting-meals-from-a-to-b/attachment/fmsc-food-distribution-kenya/
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (n.d.). Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Retrieved from http://epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/sources/agriculture.html
NASA (n.d.). Global Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet. Retrieved from http://climate.nasa.gov/climatechangeFAQ#Q3
Lim, G. (2013). Singapore’s food security strategy. Retrieved from http://asiapacific.anu.edu.au/

(Lim, 2013)
(United States Environment Protection Agency, n.d.)

Fatin Nazurah Bte Md Yusof
Eng Shi Ming
Er Jia Hui Carrie
Geraldine Tay Hui Ling
Ge WeiXun

Group 7
Definition of "Climate Change" and "Food Supply"

Impacts of Climate Change on Food Supply

Impact of Food Production on Climate Change

Effect of 2007-2008 Global Food Crisis - Singapore

Secondary Effect of Climate Change on Food Quality

Strategies to Combat Food Insecurity
Outline
CLIMATE
CHANGE

FOOD
SUPPLY

THANK YOU!
Full transcript