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Transcript of Climate Change
change in climate over time
, whether due to
natural variability or as a result of human activity.
Enhanced greenhouse effect
Burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil (increased the concentration of atmospheric CO2)
Warmer and more acidic oceans
Melting ice caps and rising sea levels
Extreme weather conditions
Global warming due to heat being trapped by atmosphere
availability of food security
crops vary in their response to climate change
Impact of Climate Change
SOIL TEMPERATURE & MOISTURE LEVELS
TEMPERATURE & RAINFALL
Climate change likely will interact with atmospheric gases, fertilizers, insects, plant pathogens, weeds, and the soil's organic matter to produce unanticipated responses.
IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE
AND LOSS OF
Rocketing Food Prices
Land that is usually dry is submerged by large amounts of water.
Prolonged period with little or no rainfall.
Crop Yield Reduction
Extreme weather events caused significant yield reductions in some years.
- make many crops grow more quickly
- could also
Faster growth reduces the amount of time seeds take to grow and mature.
CROP YIELD REDUCTION:
If the rates of rice yield decline due to thermal stress are broadly validated, and assuming that temperature increases consistent with the latest IPCC data (0.14°C to 0.58°C per decade)
tropical grain crop yields may decrease by 2% to 12% by the year 2020, and by 7% to 29% by the year 2050.
US: 70% of the grain grown is fed to farmed animals.
"Large increase in sterile cereal and legume crops in Africa (Sanchez, 2005) due to
Some crops and other plants
may respond favorably to increased atmospheric CO2
growing more vigorously and using water more efficiently.
Increase in ocean temperatures will cause some species of sea animals to lose their ability to live and reproduce.
Cod in the North Atlantic require water temperatures below 54°F.
Even sea-bottom temperatures above 47°F can
reduce their ability to reproduce
for young cod to survive
Species endangerment and extinction and loss of biodiversity
– food chain interlinked; threaten livelihood of species important to our food supply
e.g. In parts of America, they’ve lost 80% of their honeybees, which is the main workers of our honey.
Mediterranean fishes are losing their biodiversity.
- Global warming has increased and intensified heat waves
- Increase in prevalence of parasites and diseases.
- Earlier spring, and warmer winters
- Increased rainfall (for moisture-reliant pathogens)
- Pathogens can thrive
Animals killed directly:
Losses of more than 5000 animals from one heat wave:
- Affect aquatic life in warmer waters
e.g. suspected that a bacterial shell disease caused the large die
off events of lobsters in southern New England.
INCREASING ATMOSPHERIC CO2 LEVELS
→ Enhanced global warming
→ Raising animals for food (grazing land and crops) now uses 30% of land .
→Raising animals for food produces more
greenhouse gas emissions than all forms of
(UN News Center, 2006)
Deforestation to create land for agriculture
- Burning of forests
- Decreased trees
Increase release of CFCs
→ greenhouse gases cool the stratosphere, where
the ozone layer is located
→ ozone depletion happens more quickly in the
presence of ice crystal
→ ozone hole expands slightly, allows more UV
light to pass through, increases global
→ price of grain increases
→ price of meat and dairy products increases
→ anxiety and panic
→ imports over 90% of our food supply
→ extremely vulnerable to such drastic changes
→ despite small population size, likely increase in population to
6.9 million in 2030 from current 5.3million
→ strain already limited resources and food provisioning capability
SUPPLY CRUNCH IN KEY FOOD ITEMS (i.e. GRAIN)
SINGAPORE (OPEN ECONOMY)
OF CLIMATE CHANGE
Trade-off between quantity and quality of food
Decrease nutritional value of food
→ rise in atmospheric levels of
→ changes how plants metabolise
→ alters food quality and nutrition
→ lower protein levels of crops such
as wheat and rice
OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON
-Vulnerability of food systems
not determined by
environmental stress per se,
- Determined by how we
respond to control the
impact by climate change
on food supply. (Changes in
STRATEGIES TO COMBAT
FOOD INSECURITY BY
ADAPTATION OF AGRICULTURE
- Changing ways of managing agriculture
1. Land and Crop Management
2. Livestock Management
3. Manure Management
GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD
- Less fuel consumption
- Reduced fertilizer use and N2O emissions
- Withstand greater variations in weather and
- Stabilize and increase food supplies
IMPROVE FOOD DISTRIBUTION
- Infrastructural and non-infrastructural controls on food distribution
1. Improve Transport infrastructure
2. Improve Food handling technology and regulation
3. Provide adequate source and supply logistics
INCREASE ECONOMIC ACCESS
Price mechanisms and policies could be
Regional specialization in food production and
Economic growth will lead to income and
Stability in governance supported by effective
pool of human and institutional resources
Low Irregular Rainfall
Land Dries Up
Extreme Intense Rainfall
2000 Mozambique Floods
Growth of Crop Pests
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.framinghamma.gov/DocumentCenter/Home/View/933
Vidal, J. (2013, April 13). Climate change: how a warming world is a threat to our food supplies. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/apr/13/climate-change-threat-food-supplies
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (n.d.). Climate Change 2007: Working Group I: The Physical Science Basis. Retrieved from http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/faq-10-1.html
Increases in extreme rainfall linked to global warming. (2013, February 01). Science Daily. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130201100036.htm
Griffin, C. (2013, September 03). Climate change drives spread of crop pests: Serious impacts for food security. Science World Report. Retrieved from http://www.scienceworldreport.com/articles/9224/20130903/climate-change-drives-spread-crop-pests-serious-impacts-food-security.htm
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/agriculture.html
Fox, M. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/01/09/us-climate-food-idUSTRE50804F20090109
Karl, M. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/agriculture.html
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/gases/n2o.html
Cameron, K. C. (2002, December). The use of a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide (dcd), to decrease nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide emissions in a simulated grazed and irrigated grassland. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1111/j.1475-2743.2002.tb00258.x/asset/j.1475-2743.2002.tb00258.x.pdf?v=1&t=hllqmegq&s=868b304b6bce9aa19b77ae2db183641799b4cf95
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.europabio.org/can-gm-crops-help-fight-against-climate-change
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nespal.org/sirp/waterinfo/state/awd/agwaterdemand.htm
Drew Gneiser (2012, July). Retrieved from http://fmscblog.com/from-the-field/getting-meals-from-a-to-b/attachment/fmsc-food-distribution-kenya/
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (n.d.). Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Retrieved from http://epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/sources/agriculture.html
NASA (n.d.). Global Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet. Retrieved from http://climate.nasa.gov/climatechangeFAQ#Q3
Lim, G. (2013). Singapore’s food security strategy. Retrieved from http://asiapacific.anu.edu.au/
(United States Environment Protection Agency, n.d.)
Fatin Nazurah Bte Md Yusof
Eng Shi Ming
Er Jia Hui Carrie
Geraldine Tay Hui Ling
Definition of "Climate Change" and "Food Supply"
Impacts of Climate Change on Food Supply
Impact of Food Production on Climate Change
Effect of 2007-2008 Global Food Crisis - Singapore
Secondary Effect of Climate Change on Food Quality
Strategies to Combat Food Insecurity