Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

The Rise & Decline of the Orchestra from the Baroque Era to the Early 20th Century

No description
by

Whitney George

on 7 March 2016

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of The Rise & Decline of the Orchestra from the Baroque Era to the Early 20th Century

The Rise & Decline of the Orchestra
from the Baroque Era to the Early 20th Century

The Orchestra

Is a large instrumental ensemble that consists of sections of string, brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments
the most common form for an orchestral work is called a symphony, which is a multi-movement form, consisting of:
1. am opening sonata (or allegro)
2. a slow movement, such as an adagio
3. a minuet with trio or scherzo
4. an allegro, rondo, or sonata
The Baroque Orchestra (1600-1750)

Early Romantic Orchestra (1805-1850)

Late Romantic Orchestra (1850-1900)

The instrumentation for the typical Baroque Orchestra is as follows:
Woodwinds
2 Flutes
2 Oboe
2 Bassoons
Brass
2 Horns
2 Trumpet
Percussion
Timpani
Keyboards
Harpsichord
Strings
6 Violin Is
6 Violin IIs
4 Violas
2 Violoncellos
Bass
Composers Associated with the Baroque Era: Haydn, Purcell, Scarlatti, Monteverdi, Bach
Joseph Haydn
(1732-1809)
excerpt from ‘Symphony No. 94 in G Major’- Movement No. 2 (1791)

Nicknamed “The Surprise Symphony” because of the radical changes in dynamics
is in the typical 4-movement scheme and lasts 23 minutes
Haydn wrote over 100 Symphonies in his lifetime and lived through both the lives of Mozart and Beethoven
The Classical Orchestra (1750-1815)
The instrumentation for the typical Classical Orchestra is as follows:
Woodwinds
2 Flutes
2 Oboe
2 Clarinets
2 Bassoons
Brass
2-4 Horns
2 Trumpets
Percussion
2 Timpani
Strings
10 Violin Is
8 Violin IIs
6 Violas
4 Violoncellos
2 Bass
Composers Associated with the Classical Era: Mozart, Dragonetti, Farinelli, Kraus, Beethoven
Ludwig Van Beethoven
(1770-1827)
excerpt from ‘Symphony No. 1 in C, Op. 21’- Movement No. 1 (1801)

excerpt from ‘Symphony No. 9 in d minor, Op. 125’- Movement No. 2 (1824)
one of the first examples of the use of a chorus with the orchestra (final movement- Ode to Joy)
is in the typical 4-movement scheme
scored for an orchestra that utilizes some of the secondary instruments, such as piccolo
notably more independent use of the wind instruments
is in the typical 4-movement scheme and lasts 25 minutes
scored for the typical classical configuration, although it does include clarinet
Felix Mendelssohn
(1809-1847)
The instrumentation for the typical Early Romantic Orchestra is as follows:
Woodwinds
2 Flutes & 1 Piccolo
2 Oboe & English Horn
2 Clarinets & Bass Clarinet
2 Bassoons & Contrabassoon
Brass
4 Horns
2-4 Trumpets
3 Trombones
Percussion
3 Timpani
Drums: Snare, Bass
Auxiliary: Triangle, Tambourine, Cymbals
Mallet: Glockenspiel
Strings
Harp
14 Violin Is
12 Violin IIs
10 Violas
8 Violoncellos
6 Bass
Composers Associated with the Early Romantic Era: (late) Beethoven, Strauss, Mendelssohn, Liszt, Chopin
‘A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Op. 21’ (1843)
like the late Beethoven example, is scored for a much more expansive orchestra compared to the works of the early Classical era
in order to solve balance difficulties, when brass and wind instruments are added to the orchestra, the string family must acquire many new members in order to still sound “balanced”. Naturally, stringed instruments are the softest family, so they must be the greatest in number
excerpt from ‘Peer Gynt’- In the Hall of the Mountain King (1843)
Edward Grieg
(1843-1907)
The instrumentation for the typical Late Romantic Orchestra is as follows:
Woodwinds
2 Flutes & 1 Piccolo
2 Oboe & English Horn
2 Clarinets & Bass Clarinet
2 Bassoons & Contrabassoon
Brass
4-8 Horns
2-4 Trumpets
3 Trombones
1-2 Tubas
Percussion
3 Timpani
Drums: Snare, Bass
Auxiliary: Triangle, Tambourine, Cymbals
Mallet: Glockenspiel, Xylophone, Chimes
Strings
Harp
14 Violin Is
12 Violin IIs
10 Violas
8 Violoncellos
6 Bass
Keyboards
Piano
Celeste
Composers Associated with the Late Romantic Era: Tchaikovsky, Dvorak, Grieg, Puccini, Elgar
was used as incidental music for the play "Peer Gynt". In this piece of music, Peer steals the bride at a wedding. The angry guests chase him, and Peer falls, hitting his head on a rock. He wakes up in a mountain surrounded by trolls. The music represents the angry trolls taunting Peer and gets louder each time the theme repeats. The music ends with Peer escaping from the mountain.
like Beethoven’s 9th, there is a part for choir in addition to orchestra
uses an extreme dynamic envelope (starts soft and ends very loud)
greatest expansion of color is in the percussion family
excerpt from ‘Pierrot Lunaire’- Night (1921)
Arnold Schoenberg
(1874-1951)
The instrumentation for the Pierrot Ensemble is follows:
Woodwinds
1 Flute
1 Clarinet
Strings
1 Violin
1 ‘Cello
Keyboards
1 Piano
Voice
Composers Associated with the Pierrot Ensemble: Schoenberg, Boulez, Maxwell-Davies
after WWI, some composers didn’t feel that it was appropriate to continue in the romantic style (the age of disillusionment)
money was also a large factor in the decline of the orchestra as funds to produce large-scale works became quite scarce
the singer uses a technique called sprechstimme, which means 1/2 sung and 1/2 spoken
The Pierrot Ensemble of the 20th Century
Full transcript