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"The Poster War": World War I Propaganda
Transcript of "The Poster War": World War I Propaganda
– New York Evening World Boston Police Strike - 1919 “Put Them Out & Keep Them Out”
– Philadelphia Inquirer “Red Scare”
-- Anti-Bolshevism “What a Year Has Brought Forth”
– NY World The “Red Scare” “Coming Out of the Smoke”
– New York World Steel Strike - 1919 “Keeping Warm”
– Los Angeles Times Coal Miners’ Strike - 1919 “If Capital & Labor Don’t Pull Together” – Chicago Tribune Anti-Labor Post-war labor unrest:
Coal Miners Strike of 1919.
Steel Strike of 1919.
Boston Police Strike of 1919. Government Excess & Threats
to the Civil Liberties of Americans Abrams v. US – 1919
Majority ruling --> cited Holmes’ “Clear and present danger” doctrine.
Holmes & Brandeis dissented: The best test of truth is the power of the thought to get itself accepted in the competition of the market, denying that a “silly leaflet” published by an “unknown man” constituted such a danger. Government Excess & Threats
to the Civil Liberties of Americans Schenck v. US – 1919
In ordinary times the mailing of the leaflets would have been protected by the 1st Amendment.
BUT, every act of speech must be judged acc. to the circumstances in which it was spoken.
The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic. [Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes]
If an act of speech posed a clear and present danger, then Congress had the power to restrain such speech. Government Excess & Threats
to the Civil Liberties of Americans Sedition Act – 1918
it was a crime to speak against the purchase of war bonds or willfully utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about this form of US Govt., the US Constitution, or the US armed forces or to willfully urge, incite, or advocate any curtailment of production of things necessary or essential to the prosecution of the war…with intent of such curtailment to cripple or hinder, the US in the prosecution of the war. Government Excess & Threats
to the Civil Liberties of Americans Espionage Act – 1917
forbade actions that obstructed recruitment or efforts to promote insubordination in the military.
ordered the Postmaster General to remove leftist materials from the mail.
fines of up to $10,000 and/or up to 20 years in prison. Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans The “Menace of the Seas” Beat Back the “Hun” America’s “Propaganda Minister?”
Selling American Culture. The Committee of Public Information (George Creel) American Committee for Relief in the Near East United War Work Campaign We are ALL Americans! The “Flag of Liberty”
Represents All of Us! For
Men in Service True Sons of Freedom “Great Migration.”
1916 – 1919 70,000
War industries work.
Enlistment in segregated units. Opportunities for
African-Americans in WW1 National League for Woman’s
Service The Red Cross Nurse The Red Cross - Greatest
Mother in the World Even Grandma Buys
Liberty Bonds Hello, Big Boy! Women Used
In Recruitment The Girls They Left Behind
Do Their Bit! Munitions Work YWCA
The Blue Triangle Unemployment virtually disappeared.
Expansion of “big government.”
Excessive govt. regulations in eco.
Some gross mismanagement overlapping jurisdictions.
Close cooperation between public and private sectors.
Unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged groups. Results of This New Organization of the Economy? U. S. Fuel Administration U. S. Fuel Administration U. S. Shipping Board U. S. School Garden Army National War Garden Commission U. S. Food Administration U. S. Food Administration U. S. Food
Administration War Industries Board – Bernard Baruch
Food Administration – Herbert Hoover
Railroad Administration – William McAdoo
National War Labor Board – W. H.Taft & Frank P. Walsh Council of National Defense 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918.
4,800,000 men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat).
400,000 African-Americans served in segregated units.
15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units. 1917 – Selective Service Act The Spirit of ’76’ Johnnie get your gun, get your gun, get your gun, Johnnie show the Hun you're a son of a gun, Hoist the flag and let her fly, Yankee Doodle do or die. Pack your little kit, show your grit, do your bit, Yankees to the ranks from the towns and the tanks, Make your momma proud of you And the old Red White and Blue. Over there, over there Send the word, send the word over there That the Yanks are coming, the Yanks are coming, The drums rum-tumming everywhere So prepare, say a prayer Send the word, send the word to beware We'll be over, we're coming over, And we won't come back till it's over, over there! Johnnie get your gun, get your gun, get your gun, Take it on the run, on the run, on the run, Hear them calling you and me, Every son of liberty. Hurry right away, no delay, go today, Make your daddy glad to have had such a lad, Tell your sweetheart not to pine, To be proud her boy's in line. World War I
American “Anthem” The “Little Soldier” “Huns Kill Women
and Children!” Don’t Mess with the U. S. Uncle Sam
"He the Man!" The Most Famous Recruitment Poster “He gives aid & comfort to the enemies of society”
– Chicago Tribune Boston Police Strike - 1919 “While We Rock the Boat” – Washington Times Consequences of Labor Unrest "The Poster War" Propaganda
Biased controlled information by the government World War I Propaganda Posters for Recruitment/Enlistment Expansion of the Federal Government African Americans