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Global Issues In Fashion Marketing

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Nae Hen

on 8 December 2014

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Transcript of Global Issues In Fashion Marketing

Global Issues In Fashion Marketing
Shunae Henry 10014071
Herica Gomes 11045845
Vanessa Browne 11016284
Joyce Lulendo 11055174

over consumption of Fast Fashion
Unethical Production
Environmental Issues
Fast Solutions & recommendations
FAST SOLUTIONS & Recommendations
* we really don’t need - or often actually really want — the majority of clothes we buy.

* Because they are so cheap, we throw them out into the shopping basket feeling as though we have bought ourselves a bargain.

* Customers have become so accustomed to markdowns that it is creating a vicious cycle of over consumption, paired with lower margins for both brands and retailers.

* The seasonal calendar promotes a relentless drive for speed, waste and over consumption, which now characterizes the entire industry.

* Wrap suggests that an estimated 140m Pounds worth (around 350,000 tones) of used clothing goes to landfill in the UK every year, to realize that our production and over consumption habits are in need of an overhaul. (Parry, 2014)

* In 2012, UK consumers spent 44 billion pounds on new clothing (about $74 billion), (1,700 pounds per household) leaving around 1.7 billion items (30 percent) hanging in the cupboard — or even left in its carrier bag — unworn. According to WRAP, (Waste and Resources Action Programme) we each own the equivalent of 100 items of clothing. (Blanchard, Tamsin, 2014)

Aharonovitch, L. (2008) Eco Design Basics on Cradle to Grave vs. Cradle to Cradle Available at: http://www.greenprophet.com/2008/12/cradle-grave/ (Accessed: 30/10/2014)

Anderson, H. (2011). To Die For: Is Fashion Wearing Out the World? By Lucy Siegle — review. [online] the Guardian. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/books/2011/jun/12/to-die-for-lucy-siegle-review?guni=Article:in%20body%20link (Accessed: 21/11/ 2014)

Barrie, L. (2014) Fashion's new frontiers: managing sourcing risk Available at: http://www.just-style.com/plm/Fashion's-new-frontiers-managing-sourcing-risk_n123414.aspx(Accessed: 30/10/2014)

BBC News, (2011). Zara acts over Brazil sweatshop. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-14570564 (Accessed: 21/11/2014)

BBC News (2009) Bid to buck 'fast fashion' trend Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7899327.stm (Accessed: 10/11/2014)

BBC News (2008) Sustainable Oxfam boutique opens Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/london/7393684.stm (Accessed: 13/11/2014)

Birtwistle, G., Moore, C. (2007) "Fashion clothing – where does it all end up?", International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 35 Iss 3 pp. 210 – 216 Available at: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/09590550710735068 (Accessed: 13/11/2014)

Blanchard, Tamsin (2014) Join the Revolution Against Mindless Fashion Consumption, The Business of Fashion Available online: http://www.businessoffashion.com/2014/04/op-ed-rana-plaza-disaster-marks-turning-point-fashion-industry.html (Accessed: 7/11/2014)

The Culture-ist, (2012).Why Fast Fashion Is Toxic To Your Health and the Environment. [online] Available at: http://www.thecultureist.com/2012/12/06/fast-fashion-zara-detox-campaign/ [Accessed 21 Nov. 2014].

Dorsey, S. (2014) Can Crowdsourcing Reduce the Environmental Impact of Fast Fashion? Available at: http://www.triplepundit.com/2014/06/can-crowdsourcing-reduce-environmental-impact-fast-fashion/ (Accessed: 30/10/2014)

Mark Tiddy, (2014). Dispatches: Sweat Shops. [image] Available at: http://www.waronwant.org/images/stories/lfhs/LFHS_T-shirt_mosaic.jpg [Accessed 9 Nov. 2014].
Ecouterre, (2014). Bangladesh Garment Workers to Receive 77 Percent Wage Increase. [image] Available at: http://www.ecouterre.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/bangladesh-workers-1-537x402.jpg [Accessed 10 Nov. 2014].
Sweatshops Information
Common knowledge that sweatshops are used by popular retailers
Can be dated back to1800’s in places like Ecuador, America, and Britain, where the term sweatshop originated.
Globalization can be a factor that increased the use of sweatshops due to retailers needing to produce low cost garments at a fast pace

Long hours
Low pay
Bad working conditions
Usually in a less developed country
(Reference for Business, 2014).

Why workers tolerate these conditions:
They are poor so they need to make a living for their families
Don’t have unions or other organizations that enforce proper treatment and fair payment
(WGSN, 2014)
Workers examples:
April 2013
Collapsing of a factory building due to building not being safe to work in
Over 1,000 workers died
“ forced consumers and retailers to re-examine the impact and ethics of fast fashion”
(Drabble, 2013)
Brazilian sweatshop
Dangerous exposed electrical wires above piles of fabric that could have caused a fire
Workers paid 12-20 cents (4p-7p)
(BBC News, 2011)
Bad quality clothes
Large companies like Zara use unethical practices in order to keep up or compete
Companies saying that they are green or socially responsible because it is a trend but they are not.
(The Culture-ist, 2012)

Environmental Issues
Most people do not recycle their unwanted clothing

Fashion results in more clothing waste and more harmful emissions from clothing production

Fast fashion causes an increase in carbon emissions during clothing production that cause havoc in the atmosphere which contributes to global warming

Workers using rivers to wash out dyes used on denim which contaminates the river and leaves it blue. (Anderson, 2011)

Fast Fashion
Slow Fashion

Alternative to Fast fashion
Closely related to anti- consumption
Founded in Italy during the late 20th century (Pookulangara and Shephard, 2013)
Theory originally from the slow food movement
Shift from quantity to quality
i.e. seasonless pieces that can be worn almost year round.
Ethical considerations
Product life cycle management (PLM)
New innovative product lifecycle management (PLM) system called Centric 8 PLM solution
Easily and accurately track detailed content of fibres & fabrics through all stages of supply chain
Allows apparel companies to tackle sustainability & environmental issues such as:
- Ability to know when products do not contain any unwanted or unsustainable
- Improvement on product quality
- Avoiding wastage down the supply chain through earlier sourcing mistakes
- Having more knowledge on suppliers regulation of chemicals used on material

Crowd sourcing
high-tech business platform that empower the consumer as both buyer and style dictator.
brands present latest designs to the masses= feedback tool for production prediction
minimising long-term environmental impact from over-production
reduces production to only what is asked
By involving consumers in the design process could have the potential to increase satisfaction
Can decreasie problematic reality of estimated 14.3 million tons of textile waste sent to landfills each year. (Dorsey, 2014)

Cradle to Cradle (c2c)
Concept created in the 70’s Walter R. Stahe (Aharonovitch, 2008)
Popularised by William McDonough and Michael Braungart in 2002 (EPEA, 2014)
Originally a food oriented business model i.e. ‘waste equals food’
Picked up in the Fashion industry & other markets
Suggests production techniques are efficient and waste free cycle 
Material inputs/outputs have either technical or biological nutrients
Biological nutrients (biodegradable) = composted or consumed
- Organic Linen & cotton can be turned into paper pulp
- ‘Back to nature’
- Recover organic wool by re-spinning/ felted

Every garment has an impact on resources, energy and pollution

The unwanted clothing end up in landfills

Pollutes the ground and water

Fast fashion clothes are manufactured using synthetic, inorganic materials.

The production of this clothing is a large source of deadly carbon emissions

It uses chemical and energy demanding processes which require large amounts of oil and produce nasty byproducts which get into the water.

Technical nutrients (non-biodegradable) = recycled or reused quality items
- Unsold products by brands can be reused
- Using environmentally friendly fabrics made from other resources
- Re-use and recycling of unwanted clothing

Cotton & Pesticides & Water
Partnered by many brands
Features high quality second-hand clothing
New designs made from recycled garments
Also demand for discarded clothing in developing countries
Hundred’s of recycling depots filled with old clothes around Britain
Send over 70% of world’s population use second-hand clothes
Equivalent to 4.2 billion people living in developing countries (Birtwistle and Moore, 2007)

Conventional Cotton requires a global average of 11,000 liters of water per kilogram, to produce

73% of global cotton harvest comes from irrigated land

Consumption of cotton products represents 2.6% of the global water footprint of consumed goods and services.

Demise of the Aral Sea in Central Asia

Pesticides are chemicals used to eliminate or control a variety of agricultural pests that can damage crops and livestock and reduce farm productivity

Cotton accounts for a quarter of the worlds pesticide use

Pesticides reduce natural balance in eco-system

Charity Organisations

By sourcing to fair trade standards, using fair trade certified cotton or sourcing from organizations which are members of WFTO
Suppliers are supporting:
- Decent working conditions
- Local sustainability
- Fair terms of trade/ better prices for farmers and workers in developing countries

Fair Trade clothing
Organic Cotton

Organic cotton farming:
less destructive to the environment
non-toxic pesticides preventing health problems and deaths to cotton workers during production
natural pesticides made with chili, neem, garlic and soap
reduce water pollution impact by 98% ( Soil association, 2014)
Must meet the International Labour Organisation (ILO) criteria conventions

Created in 2014 Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute launched 'Fashion Positive' (Fashion Positive, 2014)
First and only program that assists fashion brands, designers and suppliers to continuously improve:
- Production of clothes
- Resources used
- Where it ends up after use
To create positive impact on society, the environment and the economy.

c2c Product Innovation
Cradle to Cradle Product Innovation
The Fashion Industry five key challenges resolved

Select environmentally friendly materials harmless to humans

Identify where the product and the materials it's made of go after its use.

Power industry with renewable energy.

Treat water as a precious resource and clean water as an essential human right.

Honor all natural systems and the people involved in creating products.

In 2012, a Greenpeace report revealed that companies like Zara and H&M were selling products that contained hazardous chemicals. Not only were these chemicals contaminating waterways and vegetation, some of them were also cancer causing and hormone disrupting chemicals
Health Issues
Many cotton farmers die from pesticide poisoning vary from 20,000 to 40,000 per year

Lung and skin irritation (farmers)

Consumer cancer,
The Detox Campaign
Greenpeace launched Zero Discharge of Hazardous Chemicals (ZDHC) in 2011 (Greenpeace, 2014)
coalition of many major apparel & footwear brands i.e. Inditex Group (the parent company of the Zara chain), Nike, H&M, etc.
To adopt a credible, individual and public commitment to eliminate discharge of ALL hazardous chemicals from production processes by 2020.
These include:
- various production emissions (e.g. air and solid wastes)
- waste water pipe discharge
- later life "losses" from the final product

Rana Plaza:
"had been audited twice and served with a clean bill of health by Primark.In Pakistan in 2012 the Ali Enterprises factory fire killed 289 garment workers – despite the factory having been recently inspected and certified by Social Accountability International" (Hoskins, 2014)
Drabble, E. (2013). Working conditions in the fashion industry: news and teaching resources round up. [online] the Guardian. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/teacher-network/teacher-blog/2013/may/19/fashion-industry-garment-factory-collapse-teaching-news-resources [Accessed 21 Nov. 2014].

EPEA (2014) The cradle of cradle to cradle Available at: http://epea-hamburg.org/en/content/cradle-cradle%C2%AE (Accessed: 30/10/2014)

Ethical fashion forum (2014) Fairtrade Available at: http://www.ethicalfashionforum.com/the-issues/fairtrade (Accessed: 12/11/2014)

Fashion Positive (2014) Fashion Positive: creating beautiful fashion inside and out Available at: http://www.fashionpositive.org/ (Accessed: 30/10/2014)
Fashion Positive (2014) What we do Available at: http://www.Fashionpositive.org/what-we-do/ (Accessed: 30/10/2014)

Fashion positive (2014) Leadership phase partners Available at:http://www.Fashionpositive.org/what-we-do-2 (Accessed: 30/10/2014)

Greenpeace (2014) The detox campaign Available at: http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/toxics/water/detox/intro/ (Accessed at: 20/11/2014)

Hoskins, T. (2014). Data monitoring in fashion factories alone will not solve poor conditions. [online] the Guardian. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/data-monitoring-fashion-factories-poor-conditions [Accessed 29 Nov. 2014].

Howard, J. (2009) Throwaway fashion - BBC Report, Available online: (Accessed: 7/11/2014)

Kim, H., Choo, J., Yoon, N. (2013)"The motivational drivers of fast fashion avoidance“ Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, Vol. 17 Iss 2 pp. 243 – 260 Available at: http://0-www.emeraldinsight.com.emu.londonmet.ac.uk/doi/pdfplus/10.1108/JFMM-10-2011-0070 (Accessed: 13/11/2014)

Lanyon, C. (2013) Fast-fashion brands launch eco-initiatives - but are they serious? Available at:http://www.scmp.com/lifestyle/fashion-watches/article/1321447/fast-fashion-brands-launch-eco-initiatives-are-they(Accessed: 30/10/2014)

Mark and Spencers (2014) Waste available at: http://corporate.marksandspencer.com/plan-a/policies-and-consultations/policies/operations/waste (Accessed: 13/11/2014)

Parry, Carrie, (2014)Traditional fashion calendar fuels overconsumption and waste, The Guardian Available online: http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/sustainable-fashion-blog/2014/sep/17/fashion-calendar-sustainable-climate-change-london-fashion-week (Accessed: 7/11/2014)
Pookulangara, S., Shephard, A. (2013) Slow fashion movement: Understanding consumer perceptions—An exploratory study Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 20 200–206 Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0969698912001506 (Accessed: 13/11/2014)

Reference for Business, (2014). Sweatshops. [online] Available at: http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Str-Ti/Sweatshops.html (Accessed 10/11/2014)

Soil association (2014) Organic cotton Available at: http://www.soilassociation.org/whatisorganic/organictextiles/organiccotton

Sustainability dictionary (2014) Dictionary of sustainable management Available at: http://www.sustainabilitydictionary.com/cradle-to-cradle/ (Accessed: 30/10/2014)

Verma, R. (2014) Fibres and fabrics cutting cost in fibre supply Available at: http://www.just-style.com/plm/Fibres-and-fabrics-Cutting-costs-in-fibre-supply_n123418.aspx (Accessed: 30/10/2014)

WGSN, (2014). Sourcing News Analysis - September. [online] Available at: http://0-www.wgsn.com.emu.londonmet.ac.uk/content/board_viewer/#/54491/page/1 [Accessed 9 Nov. 2014].

Pesticide action network (2014) [Online] Available at: http://www.panna.org/resources/cotton

WWF (2014) Cotton farming [Online] Available at :http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/freshwater_problems/thirsty_crops/cotton/

Environmental Justice Foundation (2014) Cotton and water [Online] Available at :http://ejfoundation.org/cotton/cotton-and-water

Make do and mend (2014) Over consumption of clothes [Online] Available at : http://make-do-and-mend.org/overconsumption_of_clothes.html

The guardian, (2010) Over consumption is costing us the earth and human happiness [Online] Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2010/jun/21/overconsumption-environment-relationships-annie-leonard

weebly (2014) Fast fashion [online] Available at :http://fastfashion.weebly.com/overconsumption.html

Do something (2014) 5 effects of fast fashion [online] available at : https://www.dosomething.org/tipsandtools/5-effects-fast-fashion

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