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Transcript of Amphibians
Bright blue Coloration warns predators not to eat it
Skin contains toxins therefore the frog has the ability to either paralyze or kill predators that make an attempt to eat it. Wallace's Flying Frog Order: Anura
Has A Terminal Segment of each finger and toe which is formed into specialized toe pads-allows the frog to stick to vertical surfaces
Huge Webbed Hands, Feet and Skin on their sides . Added surface area allows them to glide
Their hindlimbs are also larger than their forelimbs causing them to jump easier Darwin's Frog Order: Anura
When frog eggs hatch, the male "swallows' the newborn tadpoles where they are placed into the male's vocal sac.
There they will grow for about six weeks until they are released by a series of convulsive movements by the father.
Allows the eggs to be safe until they are fully grown. Reproduction Anura Caudata Gymnophiona amplexus spermatophores pulled into cloaca Pebble Toad Waterfall Toad external fertilization internal fertilizaton internal fertilization Surinam Toad Circulatory System less efficient than mammalian oxygenated and deoxygenated are combined receives oxygen distributes oxygen ectothermic cold blooded "outside hot" similar to mammals "living on both sides" sperm deposited directly into cloaca eggs tadpole froglet frog Chaloux Chaloux Chaloux Chaloux Chaloux Chaloux Chaloux The Mating Rituals of Amphibians One of the major ways in which male amphibians and females interact is through the exchange of pheromones this applies especially to salamanders who utilize pheromones in courtship rituals.
Pheromones are peptides which are composed of a mixture of amino acids .
The release of pheromones is regulated by the hormones prolactin and androgen.
The use of pheromones to attract mates is not common to all amphibians specifically frogs who do not use pheromones.
Male frogs usually instead of releasing pheromones puff up vocal sacs located under their chins which releases a bellow that attracts mates. Style in which amphibians attract mates varies based on species.
Frogs exclusively use the bellows to attract mates where as salamanders use pheromones, this has to do with adaptations developed long ago by the ancestors of these species.
The pheromones used by salamanders are produced by glands located under the salamanders’ skin.
Male salamanders sometimes use bright colors in order to attract possible mates.
The bright colors used by male salamanders to attract mates can in some cases also attract predators which is an evolutionary negative.
The evolutionary benefit of salamanders using pheromones to attract mates is that pheromones can also be used to signal danger to fellow salamanders which is a helpful defense mechanism.
Usually the bellowing mating call of frogs are specific so that only females of the same species are attracted. Toads, which are close cousins to frogs also use similar mating calls to attract possible mates.
Salamanders seek out females, as opposed to frogs which let out mating calls in groups.
As an adaptation the bellow of frogs and toads is sometimes made at a certain pitch so that it does not attract predators and so the frog can remain safe.
While frogs and salamanders differ in how they attract mates, they also differ in how they mate.
Male frogs fertilize eggs externally as they are emerging from females, where as Salamanders fertilize eggs internally by injecting spermatophores into the females’ cloacal opening or directly into the females reproductive tract where the eggs are still inside. Works Cited
Abbey, D. "Rhacophorus nigropalmatus." (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. 23 May, 2011.
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Rajchard,J.Vet.Med.Department of Ecology,Department of Agriculture,University of South Bohemia.website.May 28,2011.
Sandhyarani, Ningthoujam. "Facts and Characteristics of Amphibians." Buzzle Web Portal: Intelligent Life on the Web. Web. 30 May 2011.
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Zug, George R. Herpetology: Introducing the Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. SanDiego, CA: Academic Press, 1993. Characteristics and Adaptations Cold-blooded: derive from outside hear making temperatures and behavior vary
Habitat: changes from when young to adult, prefer moist areas
Eyes: eyes include lids, glands, ducts, and muscles that allow accommodations
Auditory system: specially adapted papilla amphibiorum and columella-opercular complex
Glands: poisonous glands used to defend themselves Endangered Amphibians California Tiger Salamander •Wide mouth outlined in yellow to look like it’s smiling
•Unique habitats which are very rare
•Illegal to destroy their habitats
•Too much damage •Coqui huajon
•“demon of Puerto Rico”
•Rare habitat Hellbender Puerto Rico Rock Frog •Aquatic salamander that can be two feet long
•Threatened by pollutions in habitat
•Decrease in population Class:Amphibia Phylum: Chordata Why do we
Care? Over 200 species of Amphibians have had a decline in population
Is caused by run-off chemicals, and viral infections, and global warming
Amphibians are known as "indicator species" therefore if they are unhealthy their environment is unhealthy too
If Amphibians around the world become extinct then other animal and plant species will become extinct