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Myriam Faz

on 17 April 2015

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Window Styles
Window Materials
Performance Ratings of Windows
Window Installation and Surrounding Details
Classification of Doors
Door Frames
Fire-Rated Doors and Windows
Classification of Doors
Doors are classified as either interior or exterior

They can also be classified based on the materials of which they were made

Door styles and door operation are two more classifications
Interior Doors
Used in the interior of a house.
EX: Bedroom doors, bathroom
doors, closets doors
Not insulated like most exterior doors
Wood doors are the most popular choice
Interior doors are generally hollow-core
Public interior doors are often solid-core
Fire Rated Wall
Added protection against the spread of fire.
This is only the case if the openings provide the same amount of fire protection.
Openings count as door, shutters, and windows.
Fire Protection Ratings
It is acceptable for fire protection ratings to be lower than fire resistance ratings of the wall that they are in.
Rated openings are referenced to the entire assembly (the door, door frame, window frame, sill, hinges, etc.)
Building code requires that a fire rated door or window have a label the means the assembly has been tested and approved.
Ivanna Amezcua
Chelsea Anderson
Myriam Faz
Dylan Hoffman
Ricky Lopez
Exterior Doors
Include entry doors, garage doors, and overhead doors
Entry doors in residential buildings are generally insulated and rated for energy performance
Wood, Metal, and Fiberglass reinforced plastic doors
Wood doors are most popular for interior doors
Metal doors can be made from steel, aluminum, or stainless steel
Steel doors are used where greater security, fire resistance, rot resistance, blast resistance, and wind-load resistance are required
Metal doors are generally hollow-core
Wood, Metal, and Fiberglass reinforced plastic doors
Stainless Steel doors are used for food-processing plants, freezer rooms, and commercial kitchens
Aluminum doors are glazed and commonly used in public buildings.
Aluminum flush doors and panel doors are specified where corrosion resistance is important, such as in water-treatment plants, swimming pools, and pumping stations
FRP's are very durable, can withstand heavy use and adverse weather conditions, and do not rot,split, or corrode
FRP's are commonly used in schools
Classification Based on Door Operation
Single-leaf hinged door
Double-leaf hinged door
Sliding pocket door
Bypass sliding door (both leaves slide on each other)
Slide-hinged folding door
Accordian door
Classification Based on Door Styles
Flush door
Louvered flush door
Panel door, also called rail-and-stile door
French door
Divided french door
Dutch door (bolt allows top and bottom halves to operate together
Door Frames
Wood door frames are used with wood, fiberglass, and metal doors in non-fire-rated applications
Metal door frames are used with metal doors or fire-rated wood doors
Door Frame Installation
Door Installation
Start by drawing a plumb line on the wall. Measure 1/2" in from the rough opening on the hinge side of the door. Using a 6' or 4' level draw a level line down the drywall. You can also use a laser level, which may be easier and more accurate (there are many models that can attach to a wall).
Door Installation
Now attach the door installation brackets.Attach 6 door installation brackets to the outside of the door jamb, the wood frame to which the door comes pre-attached. Place a bracket behind each of the three hinges. Attach the remaining three brackets on the the other side of the jamb. The first bracket should be 8" from the top, the next bracket just above the latch stop, and the final bracket 8" from the bottom of the door.
Door Installation
Place the door into the opening on top of blocks or shims. Place 1/2" blocks under the door if a carpet or hardwood is going to be installed or 1/4" blocks if installing laminate. Never place the door directly on an unfinished floor.
Door Installation
Attach the brackets. Using the plumb line on the wall, screw in the top bracket on the hinge side of the door. Then screw in the next 2 brackets using the same reference notch as the first bracket. After the 3 brackets are screwed into the wall using the same reference notch for each, the door is now level.
Door Installation
Install the casing around the installed door. The casing, also called the trim, is the strips of wood that hide the joints and some parts of the hinge.
Fire Doors
A fire door can be rated as:
3 hour
90 minutes
60 minutes
45 minutes
20 minutes
Fire Windows
Whenever a wall (interior or exterior) is required to be fire rated, there must be a
glazed window
The glazed window must be be able to provide 45 minute protection at the minimum.
These glazed windows that provide 45 minute protection are also called
fire windows
1/4" wire glass and ceramic glass are most common types of glazing found.
Fire rated wall and window
Fire Rated Time
3 hour
rating is found in walls that separate buildings or divide large buildings into smaller fire areas
90 minute
rating is seen in stairwells and elevators. It is also seen in boiler rooms and in exterior walls that have the potential to be exposed to severe fire.
60 minute
rating is found in the walls separating rooms.
45 minute
rating is found in walls of corridors.
20 minute
rating is for the use of smoke and draft assembly. The main purpose of this is to minimize the amount of smoke from one side to the other.
In order for the doors to be qualified as the different time frames, they must be tested.
Materials Used
Fire rated doors can be made out of:
The function of the window is letting the daylight in and keeping the rainwater out.
Also, are now made not only from wood but also from aluminum, steel, vinyl, and fiberglass.
Complex cross-sectional profiles for frames and sashes sophisticated glazing, gaskets, weather-stripping, and hardware are required to satisfy more demanding performance requirements for windows.

Classified into two broad categories
Fixed windows
Operable Windows
fixed windows are always closed.
Fixed windows are the simplest of all windows. Because they do not have (operable)sashes, they are more economical and less likely to leak air or water.
They are commonly used in nonresidential buildings with highly controlled heating, cooling, and ventilating systems. A fixed window is also referred to as a direct-glaze window .

Fixed windows: generally does not have a sash because the glass is held directly by the window frame.
Gives 0% ventilation, and is generally more energy efficient because of its lower air leakage rate.

Fixed windows

Are commonly used in residential occupancies (homes, apartments, and hotels) sometimes in patient rooms of a hospital, and so on.
Fixed and Operable windows units are combined in the same window.
operable windows can be opened and closed to allow air passage.

Operable windows

A single-hung window consists of one sash that can slide vertically over a fixed lite of glass. It can provide up to 50% ventilation. An insect screen unit can be easily included on the outside.
Window styles:

A double-hung window consists of two sashes, both of which can slide up and down. The maximum amount of ventilation provided by a double hung window is 50%. An insect screen can be included on the outside.


consists of three sliding sashes, all of which can slide up and down. Like a double-hung window, a triple-hung window provides ventilation from both the top and bottom of the window.


A casement window (also called a side-hung window) may consist of one operable sash, as shown here, or two sashes that close on each other with or without a center mullion.
can provide up to 100% ventilation.
Screen units with a casement window are generally provided on the inside with sashes opening
Casement window

A sliding window consists of one sash that slides horizontally over a fixed sash. Alternatively, both sashes may slide with respect to each other, as shown here.
A sliding window can provide up to 50% ventilation. Asliding window is more prone to air leakage than other window styles. An insect screen unit can be easily included
toward the exterior.


An awning window (also called a top-hung window) is similar to a casement window but provides a degree of rain protection when the window is partially open. It can provide up to 100% ventilation.
An insect screen unit can only be provided toward the interior of an awning window.

A hopper window (also called a bottom-hung window) is similar to an awning window but opens inward at the top.
Like an awning window, it can provide up to 100% ventilation. An insect screen unit can be provided toward the outside.


A pivoting window may be pivoted at the center or off center.
It allows easy cleaning of the window from the inside and can provide up to 100% ventilation.
It has the ability to direct the flow of ventilation.
In this type of window, the shutter is capable of rotating about a pivot fixed to window frame.
The frame has no rebate, the shutter could be swing horizontally or vertical.


As stated previously, five materials are used in contemporary windows:


Wood is the oldest material used for window frames and sashes.
Wood windows are generally used in high-end homes and offices requiring cozy and homey interiors.
To improve their durability and eliminate the need for periodic painting, manufacturers provide wood windows whose frames and sashes are clad on the exteriors with vinyl or aluminum.


Aluminum is by far the most commonly used window material today. It is the only window material that is also used in glass curtain walls and storefronts. It is a metal whose appearance resembles and whose corrosion resistance matches that of stainless steel. It is, however, much lighter, softer, and more flexible than steel or stainless steel.

Steel: Before the introduction of aluminum for windows, steel was commonly used as an alternative to wood.
Steel corrosion and the need for frequent painting have substantially reduced the use of steel windows.
Because of steel’s strength, steel windows are often specified for prisons and other locations where greater durability and greater resistance to lateral loads.

Window Installation and Surrounding Details
Windows are brought to the site fully assembled and glazed.

On-site glazing is limited to fixed windows with large glass panels.

Installation of the window may occur before or after the exterior cladding has been placed.

Window installation before exterior cladding has been placed requires adequate precautions to be taken to prevent damaging windows.
Installation of Windows with Nail Flanges
Windows with nail flanges are generally used in buildings with:
Exterior Wood Siding
EIFS Cladding
Masonry Veneer Cladding

The window is anchored to the wall through the flanges.
The flanges project over the entire window perimeter, sealing the rough opening and providing a built-in flashing.
Examples of details are provided by manufactures with recommendations for anchorage and installation of their windows.
Installation of Windows without Nail Flanges
Several methods may be used to install windows without nailing flanges

Two common methods for aluminum windows are:
Using perimeter receptor frame
Utilizing two-piece interior perimeter trims
The receptors are first anchored to the rough opening with anchorage point fully sealed. The window, complete with frame, sashes, glass, hardware, ets. is then placed within the receptor frame.

Aluminum retainer clips that are snapped onto the receptors from the inside provide lateral load resistance to the window.
Another alternative anchorage method utilizes two-piece interior perimeter trims.

The window is placed first in the opening, squared, and leveled. Then the L-shaped trim piece is anchored to the rough opening on all sides and the window.

The second trim piece is snapped on the first trim piece. After this has been done, interior finishes can be applied to the opening.
There are two rating systems:
Window Installation and Surrounding Details
Energy Performance Window
Structural & Water-Leakage Windows
Energy Performance Rating Window
These windows are provided by the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC), which is backed by the US government Energy Star initiative.
NFRC- rated windows are labeled for their U-values and solar heat-gain coefficient (SHGC)
Structural, Water-Leakage, and Other Performance Ratings of a Window
In addition to energy efficient, these windows must be strong enough to resist wind loads, it should not leak water or air, and the windows locking mechanism should prevent forced entry.
All windows must be tested for the following:
Resistance to wind loads
Resistance to water leakage
Resistance to air leakage
Resistance to forced entry
Based on the test results, a window is assigned a rating designation that includes the following:

Window style
Window performance
Window performance grade
Window size
Other Performance Characteristics of Windows
Generally, a manufacturer will have its windows tested for several other characteristics such as:
Force test (forced required to open and close window)
Life-cycle (determines damage over time to hardware parts used in the windows)
Vertical deflection test (determines the deflection of a sash in a casement window)
Acoustical windows are tested for their sound insulation property.

Windows and Building Codes
Windows in place of residence must satisfy the building codes requirement such as:
Minimum amount of natural light
At least one window in each sleeping room of a dwelling.
When open, to be at least 5.7 sq ft.
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