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The Human Eye- Genetics & Coloration

Goes through the basic eye parts and then moves on to explaining the genetics through Punnett Squares to understand coloration.
by

Daria Mondeik-Stitcher

on 25 February 2013

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Transcript of The Human Eye- Genetics & Coloration

Eye Test- DARIA Eye Test- PAYTON Biggest Take Away... Knowing how to use Punnett Squares and also knowing that when the parents pass on a color gene to you it could be either their eye color or the other color gene they carry. Works Cited
Allen, Mary D. "Basic Eye Anatomy." Basic Eye Anatomy. USC, 25 Jan. 2013. Web. 25 Jan. 2013.
Dubow, Burt. "Eye Color." All About Vision. ALL About Vision, 05 Feb. 2013. Web. 05 Feb. 2013.
Montgomery, Ted M. "Anatomy, Physiology & Pathology of the Human Eye." Anatomy, Physiology & Pathology of the Human Eye. Anatomy, Physiology & Pathology of the Human Eye, 29 Jan. 2013. Web. 29 Jan. 2013.
Montgomery, Ted M. "The Optic Nerve." The Optic Nerve. The Optic Nerve, X Feb. x. Web. 14 Feb. 2013.
Morris, Paul J., and Susan F. Morris. "Genetics of Human Eye Color an Introduction." Genetics of Eye Color [Athro, Limited: Biology]. Athro Limited, 5 Nov. 2010. Web. 07 Feb. 2013.
O'Neil, Dennis. "Basic Principles of Genetics: Probability of Inheritance." Basic Principles of Genetics: Probability of Inheritance. NA, 30 Jan. 2013. Web. 30 Jan. 2013.
Porretto, Denise. "Genetics and Your Baby." Parents Magazine. American Baby, 29 Jan. 2013. Web. 29 Jan. 2013.
Rose, Ivy. "The Anatomy of The Eye." The Anatomy of the Human Eye. IvyRose Holistic, 25 Jan. 2013. Web. 25 Jan. 2013.
Starr, Barry. "Understanding Genetics." Understanding Genetics. The Tech, 31 Jan. 2013. Web. 31 Jan. 2013.
X, X. X. "Posterior and Anterior Chambers of the Eye?" WikiAnswers. Answers, 01 Feb. 2013. Web. 01 Feb. 2013.
YouTube. Dir. Barry Starr. Perf. Ruth. YouTube. YouTube, 26 Sept. 2008. Web. 31 Jan. 2013.
YouTube. Dir. Boze Man Biology. Perf. Bozemanbiology. YouTube. YouTube, 13 Dec. 2011. Web. 30 Jan. 2013.

LIVE RESOURCE- Mr. Jirik Live Resource
-Mr. Jirik Mitosis
Meiosis
Possible Crosses
Color Pattern Example of the Human Eye The Basic Eye Anatomy Cornea
Iris
Pupil
Lens
Optic Nerve
ETC. Punnett Squares First you draw up a 2 by 2 square making up 4 squares put together. The HUMAN Eye
-Genetics & Coloration Punnett Squares Documentation Sketches By: Daria Mondeik-Stitcher THANK YOU! For coming to my presentation! Cornea: Clear surface/ window of the eye that allows light to pass through into the eye. Medial Rectus Muscle + Lateral Rectus Muscle: Two muscle located on the top and bottom part of the eye, hidden from view, that help the eye "move" and have function. Anterior Chamber: A dividing point of the eye. Iris: The colored "muscle" of the eye that acts like an aperture of a camera that helps regulate the amount of light that can enter the eye. Pupil: The dark center in the middle of the Iris. It adjusts it's size to allow the eye to be able to see in different lighting. (Constricting= gets smaller to let little light in. Dilating= gets bigger to allow more light in.) Posterior Chamber: A dividing point of the eye. Lens: A transparent structure inside of the eye that focuses light rays onto the Retina. Retina: Contains photosensitive elements (called rods and cones) that convert the light they detect into nerve impulses that are then sent into the brain through the Optic Nerve. Optic Nerve: Is the second cranial nerve, (Cranial Nerve II) and is also responsible for sight/ vision. The nerve connects to the Visual Cortex, (The visual center of the brain). Retinal Blood Vessels: The blood supply to the eyes. Vitreous Humor: Known as (Vitreous Body), it is also a jelly like substance. Macula Lutea: Allows the eye to see "sharp" vision and detailing within objects, people, etc. Choroid: A layer behind the Retina used to absorb unused radiation. Ciliary Muscle: Ring shaped muscle attached to the Iris that controls the shape of the lens. Sclera: The tough white colored part around the eye, also known as (The White of the Eye). Were the Visual Cortex is located! Punnett Squares is a technique used to determine the possible outcomes when dealing with genetics. It can be used with eye color, flowers, etc. Next you write in each set of the parents eye color genes. (Parent #1 will go on top above the squares, & parent #2 will go on the side along the squares. Parent #1 B b Parent #2 G G Then you add together the letters making a genetic color "code" of each possibility/ outcome of a child's eye color. Parent #1 Parent #2 B b G G B g B g G b G b The possible outcomes would be Bg & Gb If you are wondering why the green was dominant in half of the possibilities and recessive in the other half, that is because brown is dominant over everything because it has the most color pigment and green is dominant over blue because it has more color pigment, just not as much as brown. Color Chart This color chart shows the "basic" eye colors in dominant and recessive order. Brown Green blue Blue has the least amount of Melanin/ pigment in eye color, so it is recessive under all colors. Green is dominant over blue, but recessive under brown. It has more Melanin/ pigment than blue, but not as much as brown. Brown has the most amount of Melanin out of all of the eye colors. It is dominant over every eye color. Melanin: The amount of color pigment that your eyes have to make the color. The Melanin develops as you get older because most baby's are born with blue eyes and the pigment has not been fully developed yet. DOMINANT & recessive what does each one mean? DOMINANT means... the one of a pair of alternative alleles that masks the effect of the other when both are present in the same cell or organism. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/dominant?s=t recessive means... that one of a pair of alternative alleles whose effect is masked by the activity of the second when both are present in the same cell or organism.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/recessive?s=t Focus- nothing noticeable happened
Light- pupils constricted (got small)
Dark- pupils dilated (expanded)

Read- pupils twitched Focus- blinked a lot
Light- pupils constricted
Dark- pupils didn't change in size

Read- twitched Eye Test Conclusion I thought the information gathered would give me lots of information about the basic "functions" of the human eye, but after I was done I got no real use from the information. Any Questions? Proposal Questions? What are the basic parts of the human eye?

What genetics are involved in producing eye color?

How are people born with two colored eyes? EX: green and blue

Do eyes change color?

What are the basic functions of the eye? Iris: The colored part/ “Muscle” of the human eye.
Pupil: An aperture that light passes through and how we see things.
Cornea: Contributes to the image forming process by refracting light entering the eye, it is the front “clear” surface.
Retina: Contains photosensitive elements that convert light they detect into nerve impulses that get sent out into the brain through the Optic Nerve.
ETC… What are the basic parts of the human eye? It is all about Dominant and Recessive genes. Brown-(brown, honey) is dominant over Green and Blue, Green-(green, hazel) is dominant over Blue, but recessive under Brown. Blue-(Light blue, Dark blue, amethyst, gray) is recessive under Brown and Green. What genetics are involved in producing eye color? There are several ways this can happen; faulty developmental pigment transport, local trauma in womb or shortly after birth, benign genetic disorder, inflammation. How are people born with two colored eyes? EX: green and blue There is a pigment called Melanin. It is a brown pigment that develops after the baby is born and can change over time throughout the babies life giving them different colored eyes. Do eyes change color? Constricting, Dilating, and moving back and forth.
(I did some tests on home study day, so show data). What are the basic functions of the eye? It all depends on what genes your parents had when you started to develop because 50/50 of the parents genes are given to you. How do you get you color eye? The human eye is an organ which reacts to light for several purposes. As a conscious sense organ, the mammalian eye allows vision. Rod and cone cells in the retina allow conscious light perception and vision including color differentiation and the perception of depth. The human eye can distinguish about 10 million colors.[1]
In common with the eyes of other mammals, the human eye's non-image-forming photosensitive ganglion cells in the retina receive the light signals which affect adjustment of the size of the pupil, regulation and suppression of the hormone melatonin and entrainment of the body clock. The eye is not shaped like a perfect sphere, rather it is a fused two-piece unit. The smaller frontal unit, more curved, called the cornea is linked to the larger unit called the sclera. The corneal segment is typically about 8 mm (0.3 in) in radius. The sclerotic chamber constitutes the remaining five-sixths; its radius is typically about 12 mm. The cornea and sclera are connected by a ring called the limbus. The iris – the color of the eye – and its black center, the pupil, are seen instead of the cornea due to the cornea's transparency. To see inside the eye, an ophthalmoscope is needed, since light is not reflected out. The fundus (area opposite the pupil) shows the characteristic pale optic disk (papilla), where vessels entering the eye pass across and optic nerve fibers depart the globe. The dimensions differ among adults by only one or two millimeters. The vertical measure, generally less than the horizontal distance, is about 24 mm among adults, at birth about 16–17 millimeters (about 0.65 inch). The eyeball grows rapidly, increasing to 22.5–23 mm (approx. 0.89 in) by three years of age. By age 13, the eye attains its full size. The typical adult eye has an anterior to posterior diameter of 24 millimeters, a volume of six cubic centimeters (0.4 cu. in.),[3] and a mass of 7.5 grams (weight of 0.25 oz.). The eye is made up of three coats, enclosing three transparent structures. The outermost layer is composed of the cornea and sclera. The middle layer consists of the choroid, ciliary body, and iris. The innermost is the retina, which gets its circulation from the vessels of the choroid as well as the retinal vessels, which can be seen in an ophthalmoscope.
Within these coats are the aqueous humor, the vitreous body, and the flexible lens. The aqueous humor is a clear fluid that is contained in two areas: the anterior chamber between the cornea and the iris, and the posterior chamber between the iris and the lens. The lens is suspended to the ciliary body by the suspensory ligament (Zonule of Zinn), made up of fine transparent fibers. The vitreous body is a clear jelly that is much larger than the aqueous humor, present behind lens and the rest, and is bordered by the sclera, zonule, and lens. They are connected via the pupil.[4] The retina has a static contrast ratio of around 100:1 (about 6.5 f-stops). As soon as the eye moves (saccades) it re-adjusts its exposure both chemically and geometrically by adjusting the iris which regulates the size of the pupil. Initial dark adaptation takes place in approximately four seconds of profound, uninterrupted darkness; full adaptation through adjustments in retinal chemistry (the Purkinje effect) is mostly complete in thirty minutes. Hence, a dynamic contrast ratio of about 1,000,000:1 (about 20 f-stops) is possible.[5] The process is nonlinear and multifaceted, so an interruption by light merely starts the adaptation process over again. Full adaptation is dependent on good blood flow; thus dark adaptation may be hampered by poor circulation, and vasoconstrictors like tobacco.[citation needed]
The eye includes a lens not dissimilar to lenses found in optical instruments such as cameras and the same principles can be applied. The pupil of the human eye is its aperture; the iris is the diaphragm that serves as the aperture stop. Refraction in the cornea causes the effective aperture (the entrance pupil) to differ slightly from the physical pupil diameter. The entrance pupil is typically about 4 mm in diameter, although it can range from 2 mm (f/8.3) in a brightly lit place to 8 mm (f/2.1) in the dark. The latter value decreases slowly with age; older people's eyes sometimes dilate to not more than 5-6mm.[citation needed] The approximate field of view of an individual human eye is 95° away from the nose, 75° downward, 60° toward the nose, and 60° upward, allowing humans to have an almost 180-degree forward-facing horizontal field of view.[citation needed] With eyeball rotation of about 90° (head rotation excluded, peripheral vision included), horizontal field of view is as high as 270°. About 12–15° temporal and 1.5° below the horizontal is the optic nerve or blind spot which is roughly 7.5° high and 5.5° wide.[6] Eye irritation has been defined as “the magnitude of any stinging, scratching, burning, or other irritating sensation from the eye”.[7] It is a common problem experienced by people of all ages. Related eye symptoms and signs of irritation are e.g. discomfort, dryness, excess tearing, itching, grating, sandy sensation, smarting, ocular fatigue, pain, scratchiness, soreness, redness, swollen eyelids, and tiredness, etc. These eye symptoms are reported with intensities from severe to less severe. It has been suggested that these eye symptoms are related to different causal mechanisms.[8]
Several suspected causal factors in our environment have been studied so far.[7] One hypothesis is that indoor air pollution may cause eye and airway irritation.[9][10] Eye irritation depends somewhat on destabilization of the outer-eye tear film, in which the formation of dry spots results in such ocular discomfort as dryness.[9][11][12] Occupational factors are also likely to influence the perception of eye irritation. Some of these are lighting (glare and poor contrast), gaze position, a limited number of breaks, and a constant function of accommodation, musculoskeletal burden, and impairment of the visual nervous system.[13][14] Another factor that may be related is work stress.[15][16] In addition, psychological factors have been found in multivariate analyses to be associated with an increase in eye irritation among VDU users.[17][18] Other risk factors, such as chemical toxins/irritants, e.g. amines, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, N-decane, VOCs; ozone, pesticides and preservatives, allergens, etc. might cause eye irritation as well. Certain volatile organic compounds that are both chemically reactive and airway irritants may cause eye irritation as well. Personal factors (e.g., use of contact lenses, eye make-up, and certain medications) may also affect destabilization of the tear film and possibly result in more eye symptoms.[8] Nevertheless, if airborne particles alone should destabilize the tear film and cause eye irritation, their content of surface-active compounds must be high.[8] An integrated physiological risk model with blink frequency, destabilization, and break-up of the eye tear film as inseparable phenomena may explain eye irritation among office workers in terms of occupational, climate, and eye-related physiological risk factors.[8]
There are two major measures of eye irritation. One is blink frequency which can be observed by human behavior. The other measures are break up time, tear flow, hyperemia (redness, swelling), tear fluid cytology, and epithelial damage (vital stains) etc., which are human beings’ physiological reactions. Blink frequency is defined as the number of blinks per minute and it is associated with eye irritation. Blink frequencies are individual with mean frequencies of < 2-3 to 20-30 blinks/minute, and they depend on environmental factors including the use of contact lenses. Dehydration, mental activities, work conditions, room temperature, relative humidity, and illumination all influence blink frequency. Break-up time (BUT) is another major measure of eye irritation and tear film stability.[19] It is defined as the time interval (in seconds) between blinking and rupture. BUT is considered to reflect the stability of the tear film as well. In normal persons, the break-up time exceeds the interval between blinks, and, therefore, the tear film is maintained.[8] Studies have shown that blink frequency is correlated negatively with break-up time. This phenomenon indicates that perceived eye irritation is associated with an increase in blink frequency since the cornea and conjunctiva both have sensitive nerve endings that belong to the first trigeminal branch.[20][21] Other evaluating methods, such as hyperemia, cytology etc. have increasingly been used to assess eye irritation. There are other factors that related to eye irritation as well. Three major factors that influence the most are indoor air pollution, contact lenses and gender differences. Field studies have found that the prevalence of objective eye signs is often significantly altered among office workers in comparisons with random samples of the general population.[22][23][24][25] These research results might indicate that indoor air pollution has played an important role in causing eye irritation. There are more and more people wearing contact lens now and dry eyes appear to be the most common complaint among contact lens wearers.[26][27][28] Although both contact lens wearers and spectacle wearers experience similar eye irritation symptoms, dryness, redness, and grittiness have been reported far more frequently among contact lens wearers and with greater severity than among spectacle wearers.[28] Studies have shown that incidence of dry eyes increases with age.[29][30] especially among women.[31] Tear film stability (e.g. break-up time) is significantly lower among women than among men. In addition, women have a higher blink frequency while reading.[32] Several factors may contribute to gender differences. One is the use of eye make-up. Another reason could be that the women in the reported studies have done more VDU work than the men, including lower grade work. A third often-quoted explanation is related to the age-dependent decrease of tear secretion, particularly among women after 40 years of age.,[31][33][34]
In a study conducted by UCLA, the frequency of reported symptoms in industrial buildings was investigated.[35] The study's results were that eye irritation was the most frequent symptom in industrial building spaces, at 81%. Modern office work with use of office equipment has raised concerns about possible adverse health effects.[36] Since the 1970s, reports have linked mucosal, skin, and general symptoms to work with self-copying paper. Emission of various particulate and volatile substances has been suggested as specific causes. These symptoms have been related to Sick Building Syndrome (SBS), which involves symptoms such as irritation to the eyes, skin, and upper airways, headache and fatigue.[37] Many of the symptoms described in SBS and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) resemble the symptoms known to be elicited by airborne irritant chemicals.[38] A repeated measurement design was employed in the study of acute symptoms of eye and respiratory tract irritation resulting from occupational exposure to sodium borate dusts.[39] The symptom assessment of the 79 exposed and 27 unexposed subjects comprised interviews before the shift began and then at regular hourly intervals for the next six hours of the shift, four days in a row.[39] Exposures were monitored concurrently with a personal real time aerosol monitor. Two different exposure profiles, a daily average and short term (15 minute) average, were used in the analysis. Exposure-response relations were evaluated by linking incidence rates for each symptom with categories of exposure.[39] Constriction Dilation Blue Siren 001 Minty Fresh 002 Pink Craze 004 Yellow Moon 005 Mustard Mess 003 Erasable Marker Erasable Marker Erasable Marker Good luck will come your way...
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