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Understanding The Context of Race in the U.S.
Transcript of Understanding The Context of Race in the U.S.
Reflections, Definitions, Discussions, Understanding
Race is a modern idea
Ancient societies, like the Greeks, did not divide people according to physical differences, but according to religion, status, class or even language.
The English word "race" turns up for the first time in a 1508 poem by William Dunbar referring to a line of kings.
What is Race:
Race has no genetic basis
Not one characteristic, trait or even gene distinguishes all the members of one so-called race from all the members of another so-called race.
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Human subspecies don’t exist
Unlike many animals, modern humans simply haven’t been around long enough, nor have populations been isolated enough, to evolve into separate subspecies or races.
On average, only one of every thousand of the nucleotides that make up our DNA differ one human from another.
We are one of the most genetically similar of all species.
Skin color really is only skin deep
The genes for skin color have nothing to do with genes for hair form, eye shape, blood type, musical talent, athletic ability or forms of intelligence.
Knowing someone’s skin color doesn’t necessarily tell you anything else about them.
How do you know? Let’s go!
Most variation is within,
not between, “races”
Of the small amount of total human variation, 85% exists within any local population.
About 94% can be found within any continent.
That means, for example, that two random Koreans may be as genetically different as a Korean and an Italian.
Slavery predates race
Throughout much of human history, societies have enslaved others, often as a result of conquest or debt, but not because of physical characteristics or a belief in natural inferiority.
Due to a unique set of historical circumstances, North America has the first slave system where all slaves shared a common appearance and ancestry.
What is most often left out of the stories of slavery in the U.S. are the stories of resistance by enslaved people.
Race and freedom were
The U.S. was founded on the principle that "All men are created equal," but the country’s early economy was based largely on slavery.
The new idea of race helped explain why some people could be denied the rights and freedoms that others took for granted.
The “common sense” belief in white superiority justified anti-democratic action and policies like slavery, the extermination of American Indians, the exclusion of Asian immigrants, the taking of Mexican lands, and the institutionalization of racial practices within American government, laws, and society.
Race isn’t biological,
but racism is still real
Race is a powerful social idea that gives people different access to opportunities and resources.
The government and social institutions of the United States have created advantages that disproportionately channel wealth, power and resources to people who are defined as “White.”
Colorblindness will not
Pretending race doesn’t exist is not the same as creating equality.
In the end...
To be “civilized” has some historical relevance today.
To be of a certain race has historical significance in the way in which race has taken shape as well as the way in which race continues to shift in definition and importance.
…and how it looks today.