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The American Home Front During World War One

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Emily Protheroe

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of The American Home Front During World War One

American Home Front
During World War One War Industries Board (WIB) -put together in July, 1917
-purpose: in charge of the production of war materials
-dealt with:
-distribution of materials
-building of new factories
-occasionally setting prices Involvement of Women -war creates more opportunities for women because men are away
-women become more accepted in the workforce
-became integral in the war effort
-these new opportunities drew more attention to the lack of women's suffrage, caused more unrest The Food Administration -run by Herbert Hoover
-slogan: "food will win the war - don't waste it."
-encouraged victory gardens
-wheatless mondays, meatless tuesdays, and porkless thursdays were encouraged
-general goal: conserve food for the troops. Espionage and the Sedition Acts -put in place to control public opinion and support
-anyone found to pose a threat to morale about the war could be jailed
-even things said in private were punishable
one person was jailed for ten years Treatment of German Americans -many german-americans hoped the central powers would be victorious
-the majority of americans hoped the allies would win
-officially, america was neutral
-in many school districts, german ceased to be taught
-music by german composers was no longer played in orchestras Fuel Administration -run by harry garfeild
-main goal: conserve fuel at home so the troops would have more for war
-energy saving tactics incorporated such as daylight savings time, heatless mondays, and shortened workweeks for non-war-related jobs
-main fuels conserved: oil and coal
National War Labor Board -chaired by william taft and frank walsh
-established by the government in march, 1918
-kept labor strikes at bay by fixing problems before they became distracting and caused problems with production of war materials Great Migration -henry ford recruits many african americans to work in the northern states
-many other companies follow
-offered good pay and lots of work because all the men were at war
-300-500,000 total workers migrate
-in northern cities, african americans were allowed to vote
-great migration greatly influenced the demographics in the northern states Cost of War -WWI was expensive
-total cost: about $33 billion
-about 1/3 ($10 million) was loaned to the allies
-roughly the same amount was raised in the war effort at home
-income taxes were increased, excess profit taxes were put on corporations, and excise duties were put on other miscellaneous items
-american government borrowed $20 million from the american people through liberty and later victory bonds
-21 million people subscribed to the fourth liberty loan The Committee on
Public Information
(CPI) -'marketing campaign' for the war
-led by george creel
-pamphlets sent explaining the war
-public speakers hired to promote support
-general propaganda to convince people that the war was a good idea
Full transcript