Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

IGCSE Physical Education 1.6. Fitness

No description
by

Rob Myatt

on 9 February 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of IGCSE Physical Education 1.6. Fitness

Scoring:
A plateau in oxygen uptake

Maximal heart rate was reached.

Volitional exhaustion.


Advantages:
Directly measures body oxygen consumption, which many other aerobic fitness tests try to estimate.

More accurate measurements.

Disadvantages:
Time consuming.

High costs involved for each test compared to many other aerobic fitness tests.

One person at a time!
VO2max - Direct Method of Testing
Equipment Required:
O2 and CO2 analysers.

Ergometer (a static machine that can measure workload) on which workload may be modified (treadmilll, cycle, swim bench etc.)

Heart rate monitor and a stopwatch.

Expired air measured via Douglas bags or a Tissot tank.

Procedure:
1.
Exercise is performed on an appropriate ergometer.

2.
Exercise workloads are selected to gradually progress in increments from moderate to maximal intensity.

3.
O2 uptake is calculated from measures of ventilation and the oxygen and carbon dioxide in the expired air.

4.
The maximal level is determined at or near test completion.
VO2max - Direct Method of Testing
Definition:

The maximum volume of oxygen a person can use when exercising.


Reason for it's usage:
VO2max is a measure of cardiovascular fitness.

It measures the points at which a person stops exercising aerobically and starts exercising anaerobically.

Basically... the larger the value, the fitter you are.

VO2max is reached when O2 consumption remains at steady state despite an increase in workload.

Litres per minute (l/min)

OR

Millilitres of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute
(ml/kg/min)
Maximal Oxygen Uptake (VO2max)
Why are each of the following performance affecting factors?
Factors which affect performance
Normative Data
Multistage Fitness Test (Bleep Test)
Requires: 15/20m running surface + recording (CD/MP3).
Incremental fitness test using standardised 15 or 20m recording.
Stay in time with the increasing speed of the bleeps.
Complete the test until the person misses 3 consecutive bleeps.
Record achieved result
Compare against normative data.
Tests of Cardiovascular Fitness
Health Related Exercise Programme
The ability to use the body parts and senses together to produce smooth efficient movements.
“Fitness is a measure of the body’s ability to complete physical, mental and social activities necessary for everyday life effectively and efficiently.”


Fitness for sport is more specific at a higher level.






Careful measure of fitness can help to improve performance and skill.
Definition
1.6. Fitness
IGCSE Physical Education

UNIT 1

‘Factors affecting performance’
When exercise intensity increases, the oxygen consumption also increases.
VO2max Graph
Amount of movement possible at a joint.
Components
of Fitness
You need to understand:
The explanation of each of each component of fitness
The measurement of each component of fitness.
Learn this phrase:

COMPARE AGAINST NORMATIVE DATA
Cardiovascular endurance:

The ability to aerobically exercise the body for a long time.



Muscular endurance:

The ability to repeatedly use your voluntary muscles without getting tired.
Combination of reaction time and movement time.

Reaction time.
The time it takes you to respond to a stimulus.
e.g. A goalkeeper responding to a shot in football,
The starters gun in athletics.

Movement time.
The time it takes to perform a movement.
e.g. Sprinting to catch an opponent,
The arm speed in a golf swing.
Batak Reaction Test
HEALTH RELATED FITNESS
STAMINA
Percentages of body weight made up by fat, muscle and bone.
BODY
COMPOSITION
FLEXIBILITY
SPEED
STRENGTH
Dynamic
:

Repeated application of force over a long period of time
e.g. press ups, cycling ~ Endurance.
Components
of Fitness
SKILL RELATED FITNESS
BALANCE
CO-ORDINATION
SPEED OF REACTION / TIMING
Change body position quickly, accurately and with control.

Allows a performer to:
Change direction.
Beat an opponent.
Maintain body position after change of movement.
The ability to maintain equilibrium whilst stationary
OR
moving.

Balance is important in all kinds of sporting situations
e.g. individual sports AND contact sports.
How quickly your brain can respond to a stimulus and initiate a response.

This is important in most sports and the examples in sport are endless!
e.g. 100m - Usain Bolt 2012 Olympic Final - 0.165s from pistol to reaction.
Includes your body's ability to perform skills at the precise moment they are required.
When the increase in O2 consumption plateaus, the starting point of this plateau is the person’s VO2max.
AGILITY
BALANCE
STORK TEST

Stand on one leg with the other foot touching the standing knee, eyes closed and hands on hips.

Hold this position for as long as possible without moving your hands, feet or opening the eyes. Wobbling is OK!

Compare against normative data.
ILLINOIS AGILITY TEST
Set up the course using cones & precise measurements.

Time each run.

Compare against normative data.
AGILITY
Cardiovascular endurance:

VO2max testing
(direct/indirect measurement).
Cooper Test (12 minutes)
Bleep Test / Multistage Fitness Test

Muscular endurance:

Complete exercises which work a muscle until exhaustion.
e.g push-ups, sit-ups, tricep dips etc
STAMINA
SPEED
Any test which measures how quickly you move from A to B can be used to assess your speed.


The simplest way:
50m sprint with a rolling start.
STRENGTH
Use a device called a
dynamometer
.

You can also use 1 rep. max .
FLEXIBILITY
The most common test for flexibility:
Sit & Reach Test
.

Sit on the floor with both legs straight out in front of you.

Place a box at your feet (touching the soles of your feet) with a ruler attached to the top of it.

Reach as far as you can along the ruler, keeping your legs straight.
BODY
COMPOSITION
Skin Fold Callipers
Determine a person's body fat %.
Take 4/6 measurements from the body.
Calculated to give an estimate of the total body fat %.
CO-ORDINATION
SPEED OF REACTION / TIMING
Alternate Hand Wall Toss Test
- No. of throws in 30 seconds.


Hexagonal Obstacle Test

Compare against normative data.

The size, shape, height and weight of a performer affects participation in sport.
Too much body fat = physical activity is harder.

Increases strain on muscles and joints = higher injury risk
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis
Fat is an insulator; slows down the movement of the current.
Two Electrodes are placed on a hand and the foot.
A safe electrical current is passed through the body.
The speed of the current in moving from hand electrodes to the foot determines body fat percentage.
Increased flexibility =
Fewer injuries.
Better performance.
Better posture.
Explosive
:

Exert force in one very quick movement.
e.g. javelin, high jump.
Static
:

Apply force against a fixed object.
e.g. rugby scrum, pilates.
Two types...
Someone who is uncoordinated = their movement looks awkward and shaky.
Being co-ordinated is vital in all sports!
e.g.
Hand-eye co-ordination in racket sports.
Arm-leg co-ordination in sprinting.
Reacting to a starting impulse
(
no choice
)

Choosing which reaction to opt for
(
↑ choices, ↑ reaction time
)
Ruler Drop Test
Skill Related Fitness
Agility
Balance
Co-ordination
Speed of reaction / Timing
Health Related Fitness
Stamina (Cardiovascular & Muscular endurance)
Body Composition
Flexibility
Speed
Strength
Common factors (drugs, diet, age, physique, gender, personality)
Medical (disability/injury) and illness related factors.
Mental preparation, motivation, mental ability, and experience.
External factors.
- Environment / Weather.
- Playing area / Equipment.
- Media.
- Other players.
- Officials.
Cooper Test
400m track - separated into four 100m sections.
Running/walking.
12 minutes.
Record achieved distance.
Compare against normative data.
Static
:

Hold position without movement.
e.g. handstand, headstand
Dynamic
:

Balanced with movement.
e.g. discus, football, sprint start
Full transcript