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On the Discipline of Public Administration and its Political Context

DSS 10011 The Politics and Society
by

Ng Jessie

on 6 October 2012

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Transcript of On the Discipline of Public Administration and its Political Context

Chung Wai Yin Candice (53111647)
Koo Wut Yan Anna (53081990)
Ng Tsz Chun Jessie (53111487)
Chou Tsun Ho Tony (53112700)
Chung Chi Ho John (53111696) Tutorial Presentation Week 4
DSS 10011 The Politics and Society

On the Discipline of Public Administration
and its Political Context Part A
Politics & Administration
Part B
The Politics theories and Separation of powers
Part C
Government is different
(from Business & Society) Outline 2 major political theories will be introduced:

Separation of Powers
Politic administration dichotomy theory Interpretation Part A Politics and Administration Politic Administration Dichotomy Theory The Politics Theories Part B The Separation of Powers The Structure of HKSAR Government Legislature Judiciary Execution Lord Acton's dictum, "Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely" The Managerial Approach to Public Administration The Separation of Powers The Politial Approach to Public Administration The Separation of Powers The Legal Approach to Public Administration National Affairs
The Separation of Powers National Affairs
The Separation of Powers
VS
Politic Administration Dichotomy Theory Which type of the political theory used by USA?
Where political environment can achieve more element of democracy? Government is Different Part C Reference Roosenbloom purpose to derive the Separation of powers from three disparate approach :: The Managerial Approach to Public Administration
The Politial Approach to Public Administration
The Legal Approach to Public Administration Why did those approaches develop separately? 1. Respected intellectual tradition

2. Emphasize different values

3. Promotes different types of organizational structures

4. Views individuals in markedly distinct terms 1. Effectiveness - what government can properly and successfully do

2. Efficiency - how it can do these things with the utmost possible efficiency

3. Economy - at the least possible cost either of money or of energy The idea of business like public
administration was most self consciously
and influentially discussed by
Woodrow Wilson, The study of
administration Ideal-type Bureaucracy Based on Constitution
Functional specialization
Hierarchy
Unity
Programs and Functions clearly assigned
Pay Scales
impartiality *see more in dichotomy In this section, we will discuss about...

Difference between government and private business Outline Politics and Administration “…..In the narrower and more usual sense , the act or vocation of guiding or influencing the policy of a government through the organization of a party among its citizens…..”
Frank J.Goodnow(Ed)(1900). Politics and Administration

“…..Politics has to do with policies or expressions of the state will….”
Sanskrit scholar and William Dwight Whitney(Eds)(1889-1991).The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia What is Politics?
-Vocation of guiding
-Influencing the policy of a government
-Do with policies of the state will
-Do with expressions of the state will Image:
1.

2. Wikipedia(2012) Meredith Publishing Company's 1963 edition of The New Century Dictionary. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CenturyDictionaryVolumes.jpg

3. Wikipedia(2012)Woodrow Wilson
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodrow_wilson

4. Frank J.Goodnow http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%8F%A4%E5%BE%B7%E8%AB%BE “An explanation of the word administration is not perhaps so necessary , since in scientific parlance it has not as yet acquired so fixed a meaning”
Frank J.Goodnow(Ed)(1900). Politics and Administration

“…The duty and duties of the administrator…..”
Frank J.Goodnow(Ed)(1900). Politics and Administration

“…Administration has to do with the execution of these policies….”
Sanskrit scholar and William Dwight Whitney(Eds)(1889-1991)The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia What is the administration ?
-No concrete meaning
-Do with the execution of these policies
-It is the law more detailed and systematic execution
-The duty or duties of the administrator Politics and Administration Politics and Administration The Responsibility of Politics

-Significant and the universality of the matters activities
-The Policy Formation


People hoped that want to achieve the goal of Politics
1. Specialization
2. Authority Politics and administration The responsibility of administration
- Individual and Subtle of the matters activities
- The executive of government policies


People hoped that want to achieve the goal of administration
-Efficiency
-Serve the people
-Independent Politics and administration Will the objective be successful ?

Which the following approach will be the best?

And the most effective way to achieve the goal? The Idea of Woodrow Wilson After the first world war…….
The function of government
-Trend to become more and more complicated
-The executive policies of government become more and
more difficultly
-Must to think some ways to improve the efficiency of
administration

According to "The Study of Administration", published by Woodrow Wilson in 1887::
Public administration was worth studying
Public administration research independent of politics What is Politics and Administration Dichotomy Theory?? According to the “Politics and Administration” Frank J.Goodnow ::
'there are also in all states separate organs, each of which is mainly busied with the discharge of one of these functions. These functions, are respectively, politics and adminisration'


- Two distinct function of government
- Politics and administration are independent power
- Politics cannot intervent administration operation
- The administrator will keep impartially approaches on politics
- Administration must be executed the government policies
- Judicial authorities as a separate power of government Why exercise the Politics and administration dichotomy theory?

- Exert the effects of competitive party politics
- Can monitor the public interest
- However politics competition how furious , this cannot influence the administration efficiency Politics and Administration Dichotomy Theory The benefit of executive Politics and Administration Dichotomy Theory

-Formally
-Specialized
-Administration work only in executive the government policies Politics and Administration Dichotomy Theory Do you think Politics and Administration Dichotomy Theory is suitable for us ?

Different kinds of administrator are needed to work for the citizenry in Administration System . Therefore, “Bureaucracy” existed. You can call them “civil servant” too.
But which system can manage “civil servant” efficiently ? Can we stop this situation occur in our daily life? Politics and Administration Dichotomy Theory Weber’s Bureaucracy Theory What is Weber’s bureaucracy theory ?
-Modern bureaucrat’s system base
-Rational type of bureaucracy
-Rules provide the authorities powers
-Not because of a belief or worship


Five principles of Weber’s bureaucracy theory
1. Stable duty of the administrator
2. Strict grade system
3. According to the plan exercise the government function
4. Officer Specialization
5. Officer The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia Woodrow Wilson Frank J.Goodnow Weber Weber’s Bureaucracy Theory The benefits of executive Weber’s Bureaucracy Theory

- Clear Structure
- Disciplined System
- The authorities circumscribed clearly 5. Wikipedia(2012) Max Weber http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%A9%AC%E5%85%8B%E6%96%AF%C2%B7%E9%9F%A6%E4%BC%AF Comparison between
Goodnow’s ideal government system
and the traditional one Goodnow's Ideal Government System Traditional Government System less effective (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Emphasize public interests Interests shared between properties Imperson Humanistic 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr More effective Discussed Questions The problems of American Government The spoil system
Separation of governmental organs
They have both political and administrative power
Impossible to assign a function to one governmental organs

Nebulous to assign powers
e.g. the veto power of executive ‘…the judges of the US have been accustomed to call “administrative” any power which was not in their exclusively and unqualifiedly legislative, executive, or judicial, and to permit such a power to be exercised by any authority.’

<Politics and administration>, F.K.Goodnow, P.21 Emphasis on::

Representativeness
Responsiveness
Accountability Major feature of its constitutional power is to make sure that the laws are faithfully executed makes rules Implement these rules Concern with::

Individual rights
Adversary procedure
Equity Adjudicate questions concerning their application and execution Administrators only pledge their loyalty to their properties
Nebulous of governmental system


not effective
administration is not expressing the will of states
corruption, profits division between properties
dichotomy of politic and administration The Effects Brought to America ‘there are also in all states separate organs, each of which is mainly busied with the discharge of one of these functions. These functions are, respectively, politics and administration’

<Politics and Administration>, F.K.Goodnow, P.22 The Effects Brought to America What is Politics-Administration Dichotomy? Legislation Executive Judicial Politics Administration The Characteristics of Politics-Administration Dichotomy A rigid legal doctrine
Clearest governmental system, more stable
More effective

Impartial Civil servants
Avoid the appearance of spoil system
Avoid corruption
Express the will of states, but not the specific properties Politics-Administration Dichotomy in Hong Kong Politics and administration are permeated with communist gradually after handover

Affect the neutrality of civil servants Challenges faced by Politics-Administration Dichotomy New public administration:

‘critics were dissatisfied with the “bureaucracy”, which to them had become offensive monsters unresponsive to citizens’ needs…’

H.George Frederickson, “Toward a public administration”, in Toward a new public administration: the Minnowbrook perspective edited by Frank Marini, (Chandler Co,1971) The Separation of Powers Some public administrator thought emphasizes the separation of powers rather than interested politic action

Madison said the separation of powers can prevent the accumulation of all powers legislative, executive and judiciary in the same hand . The Separation of Powers First,

the managerial approach is always emphasizing the efficiency and impartiality. The function is to execut the policies made by legislative effectively The Separation of Powers Second,

the political approach is always emphasizing the representativeness, responsiveness and accountability

The function is to consider
what is the society needs
establish the policies The Separation of Powers Third,

the legal approach is always emphasizing the individual rights, adversary procedure and equity

The function is to adjudicate questions concerning their applications and executions The Separation of Powers The major function of separation of powers is create a system of checks and balances .

That means the public administrative practitioners whose action is circumscribed by internal considerations of checks and balances. 1.Procedural due process

2. Individual substantive rights as embodied in evolving interpretations

3. The judiciary values equity Embodies three core values The Legal Approach Government is Different “Government is different because it must take account of all the desires , needs, actions , thoughts , and sentiments of 140,000,000 people.”

“Government is different because government is POLITICS.’’

By Paul Appleby (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr This can make authorities become more
efficiency than before 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Discussed Question Do you think the Hong Kong Government is being too close with the private business??
And what is/are the effect of this problem?
The Separation of Powers The Conflicts against other approaches It militrate against
- Efficiency
- Economy
- Managerial effectiveness
- Representativeness
- Responsiveness
- Political accountability Robert Parker ‘there is really no such subject as public administration’ Origin & Value Luther Gulick "the efficiency was the axiom number one in the value scale of administration” Businesslike Woodrow Wilson 'What civil service reform demand, that the business part of the government shall be carried on in a sound businesslike manner.' Scientific Management /Taylorism Enshrine the values of efficiency
and economy (Economic efficiency)
Achieve harmony and affluence among mankind
The Principles of Scientific Management by Frederick Winslow Taylor Frederick Winslow Taylor Leonard White’s “the study of administration should start from the base of management rather than the foundation of law” Max Weber The Political Approach to Public Administration Observation of some social issues
An analysis of apparent empirical reality David H.Rosenbloom "The political approach is unlike to the original of managerial approach." Paul Appleby Representativeness
- Promoting political responsiveness in administrative operations
Political responsiveness
– To response the request from the society as soon as possible
Accountability
– Responsible for the public decision
These are viewed as crucial to the maintenance of Constitution democracy Federal Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 ”the policy of the United States … to provide a Federal work force reflective of the Nation’s diversity” Origin & Value Pluralism Government Media Political Election Interest Group 6. The photo of HK government
http://news.bbcimg.co.uk/media/images/57680000/jpg/_57680202_jex_1278747_de27-1.jpg
7. The notes of DSS10010 HK in Transformation
8. Book << Classics Public Adm.>>
9. City Forum wiki
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/%E5%9F%8E%E5%B8%82%E8%AB%96%E5%A3%87 Harold Seidman ”Executive branch structure is in fact a microcosm of our society. Inevitably it reflects the values ,conflict, competing forces to be found in the pluralistic society” Democracy Democracy and Its Critics (1989) written by Robert A.Dahi
To reach the ideal requires meeting 5 criteria ::

1. Effective participation
2. Voting equality at the decisive stage
3. Enlightened understanding
4. Control of the agenda
5. Inclusiveness Robert A. Dahi "No modern country meets the ideal of idemocracy, which is as a theoretical utopia" Democracy Views the individual as part of an aggregate group
Does not depersonalize ,different from the managerial approach
Emphasis “Interests”
Denounced as making
1. Government unmanageable
2. Costly
3. Inefficient. It is derived separately from 3 parts
1. The broad conception of administrative law adequate
2. For judicialization of the public administration.
3 Constitutional law provided a third source of contemporary legal approach to public administration. Conclusion 1970 - NOW 2002 March (cc) image by jantik on Flickr Public Administration as Public Administration 1956 - 1970 Public Administration as Administration Science 1950 - 1970 Public Administration as Political Science 1787 The Separation of Powers was adopted by Constitution in United States 1900 - 1926 The Politics/Administration Dichotomy 1927 - 1937 The Principles of Administration 1938 - 1950
1947 - 1950 The Challenge
The Reaction to the Challenge Myers v.United States”The Separation of powers was adopted by the Convention of 1787,not to promote efficiency but to preclude the exercise of arbitrary power.”
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