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Paper Structure and Content

IMRAD and Story-telling
by

Anne Wegner

on 25 November 2016

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Transcript of Paper Structure and Content

Paper Structure and Content
Introduction
Methods
Results
Analysis
Discussion/conclusion
IMRAD
CARS Model
(Create a Research Space Model)
Move 1. Establish a research territory
introduce and review previous research (O)
show importance, central interest, problem, relevancy (O)
Move 2. Establish a niche
indicate a gap or extend previous knowledge (O)
Move 3. Occupy the niche
outline purposes or nature of present research (O)
list research questions or hypotheses (PISF)
announce principal findings (PISF)
state value of present research (PISF)
indicate structure of the research paper (PISF)

PISF = probable in some fields, rare in others
O = obligatory
Introduction
Methods, Results, Analysis
Summarise findings
Transition
Evaluate findings
Implications
Limitations
Consider findings within larger research area
Possible future work
Leave a “final message”

Discussion,
Conclusion
Consists of Materials, Methods, Results/Analysis and most of Discussion

Show
Data, Inference and Interpretation
What has been done to address the challenge
Your contribution to the larger problem
Action
OCAR
Opening
Challenge
Action
Resolution
Story-Telling
uses strongest and most memorable words
steps backwards through OCAR
explains the changes to the characters and their world
shows how our understanding of “nature” has advanced
concentrates on what you achieved rather than what you didn’t achieve
has your “take-home message”
Resolution
What is the
challenge
?
What
knowledge
will be gained?
What is your
research approach
?
What is your
main conclusion
?
Challenge
Who/what
are you writing about?
Where
does the story take place?
What
does your reader need to know?
What
is the larger problem ?
Opening
Data/results
Inference
Interpretation

What is the problem?
What is your specific question?
What don't we yet know (current boundaries)?
Why should we know it?
Introduction
Paragraph and Sentence Structure and Content
Structure
Topic sentence,
Supporting sentences,
Concluding/climax sentence
Content
One idea per paragraph
Clearly stated issue (topic)
Clearly ascertainable point
Sufficient discussion to establish the point
Linked to previous paragraph
Length
Variable – but normally more than one sentence!
Paragraphs
Basic word order
Subject, verb, object
(subject, verb, complement)

Other reader expectations
End-focus e.g. old information/new information
Simple clauses/complex clauses
Clauses close to what they refer to
Active verbs
S-V-O close together
Correct subject
Sentences
Full transcript