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Components of Fitness

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by

Joanna Jane Shippam

on 8 May 2013

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Transcript of Components of Fitness

Components of fitness When people think of 'flexibility' they associate it with gymnastics, but flexibility helps in LOTS of different sports.
It helps make you movements more efficient meaning you have more energy available for other aspects of you performance. it also helps you to avoid injuries as flexible muscles are not as easy to over stretch.

Being flexible also helps as you become older. this is because your muscles and ligaments are just like an elastic band.
When you leave them for a while, when you come
back they are usually slightly shriveled and whats
worse, when you try to use them, they can snap!
This is much like your muscles and ligaments, if
the are left they become stiff. "The ability to move a joint through it's full range of motion" Flexibility The sit and reach test is a commonly used test to measure an athletes flexibility.
The test measures the flexibility of the lower back and hamstring muscles.


Meter ruler/ tape measure
Sit and reach block Procedure




First sit on the floor with legs stretched out straight ahead. (Shoes should be removed).
Your soles of your feet should be placed flat against the box.
Both of your knees should be locked and pressed flat to the floor (the tester may
assist by holding them down).
With your palms facing downwards, and your hands on top of each other or side by side, you can reach forward along the measuring line as far as possible.
Ensure that your hands remain at the same level, not one reaching further forward than the other.
After some practice reaches, you reach out and hold that position for one-two seconds while the distance is recorded. Sit and reach flexibility test YouTube video There are a number of different flexibility tests that we can do to test our flexibility, including: Fitness tests Sit and reach flexibility test
Ankle and calf muscle flexibility test
Groin and muscle flexibility test Aerobic Endurance Advantages Aerobic endurance is measured as the amount of oxygen transported in the blood and pumped by the heart to the working muscles and as the efficiency of the muscles to use that oxygen.

Increasing aerobic endurance means increasing the capability of the heart and the rest of the
cardiovascular system in their most important task,
to supply oxygen and energy to your body.

Aerobic endurance is best improved by activities, which employ large muscle groups working dynamically. Such activities include walking, jogging, running, swimming, skating, cycling, stair climbing and cross-country skiing. You Tube Video Fitness Tests Multistage Shuttle Run Test (bleep test) Advantages There are a number of different aerobic endurance tests that we can do, including:

Multistage Shuttle Run Test (bleep test)
Maximal Oxygen Consumption Test (VO2max)
Balke Treadmill Test The 20m multistage fitness test is a commonly used maximal running aerobic fitness test. Equipment Flat, non-slip surface
Marking cones
20m measuring tape
Beep test CD
CD player
Recording sheets. Procedure Multistage Shuttle Run Test (bleep test) Muscular Strength The amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance. Fitness Tests There are a number of different flexibility tests that we can do to test our flexibility, including:

Hand grip strength test
Isokinetic Strength Tests
Abdominal Strength Test Equipment Hand grip strength test Procedure Hand grip strength test Advantages: The purpose of this test is to measure the maximum isometric strength of the hand and forearm muscles. Hand grip dynamometer You hold the dynamometer in your dominant hand, with your arm straight up in the air.
Then you squeeze as hard as you can for 5 seconds whilst slowly bringing your arm down to your side.
This should be repeated 3 time
Best result is recorded. Video Body Composition Fitness Tests Equipment Skin Caliper Test Procedure Body Composition- Skin Caliper test Advantages Results "Percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle or bone." There are a number of different body composition tests that we can do, including:

Skin Caliper
Girth measurements
Body Weight By Joanna Shippam A B |
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| The Skin Caliper test is a common test used to determine your body fat composition. Dynamometer
This test can be done anywhere
It is very easily to do
Only one piece of equipment is required. Disadvantages Disadvantages This test is both easy to set up and to conduct as there is minimal equipment required and it can be completed basically anywhere (inside or outside). Disadvantages
• It is easy to set up and complete
•More than one athlete can take the test at the same time
•The test can be done inside and out. Disadvantages •Only one piece of equipment is needed
•It is easy to complete and doesn't take a lot of time
•This test can be done anywhere (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr Stand behind one of the lines facing the second line, and begin running when instructed by the CD or tape.
The speed at the start is quite slow.
The subject continues running between the two lines, turning when signaled by the recorded beeps.
After about one minute, a sound indicates an increase in speed, and the beeps will be closer together.
This continues each minute (level).

If the line is not reached in time for each beep, the subject must run to the line turn and try to catch up with the pace within 2 more ‘beeps’. Also, if the line is reached before the beep sounds, the subject must wait until the beep sounds. The test is stopped if the subject fails to reach the line (within 2 meters) for two consecutive ends. Aerobic Endurance Muscular Strength Body Composition Flexibility You Tube Vdeio Usually measurements are taken fro 3-9 different standard anatomical sites around the body.
For consistency the right side is usually only measured.
First the assistant should pinch the skin at the appropriate site
Then clip on the calipers to the layer of skin
Then the reading in millimeters (mm) should be recorded.
This should be repeated at each site of the body you are testing. Body composition is about knowing how much of your body weight is fat bone and muscle.

For athletes this is important for them to concentrate on so they can reach their optimal body shape for their sport. Agility (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr "The ability to change the position of the body quickly and with control." Agility Fitness tests Purpose Illinois Agility Run Test Advantages Results Agility Video



Agility helps performance in sports that require you to change direction quickly whilst keeping balance, strength, speed and body control.


To develop agility in an individual; timing, co-ordination, balance, direction changes and suppleness all need to be looked at. There are a number of different tests that we can do to test our agility, including:

Illinois Agility Run Test
Zig Zag Test
505 agility test Equipment The purpose of the Illinois agility run test is to monitor the development of an athletes performance. •Flat non-slip surface
•8 cones
•Timer
•Assistant Procedure •After the course is set up, the athlete lies face down on the floor at the “Start” cone
•The assistant gives the command “GO” and starts the stopwatch.
•The athlete jumps to their feet and completes the course.
•When the athlete crosses the passes the finish cone, the assistant stops the stopwatch and records the time. Disadvantages This test is easy to set up and complete
It can be completed in and outside
Not alot of equipment is required
Assistant is needed "The ability to exercise the whole body for long periods of time
(stamina)" https://www.dropbox.com/s/o2yr2ri21wgtls2/20120922_132543.mp4 Sit and Reach Test Equipment Results •Assistant required to administer the test
•Specialist equipment required.
A disadvantage of this test is becuase you need 'specilist' equipment (sit and reach BOX) which will make this test a little expensive however there are other options (eg, use a bench). Also to do this test you need someone to read the measurement whilst your doing the test. |
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| Specialist equipment required
CD & CD Player
Assistant is needed |
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| Results - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Cost Cost and reliability Because this test requires specialist equipment it can be rather expensive. The coast of a sit and reach box is around £80.
However using a bench with a measuring tape across it, is just as good and a lot cheaper. Reliability The reliability of this test really depends on you using the same method each time. Meaning, if you warm up you must warm up in the same way every time you conduct the test as you will get better results if you warm up for longer. cost Cost and reliability This test requires the sit up bleep test audio, which can be expensive to buy, however you can now download it from a number of sites for free of download it using the app for around £1. Reliability One main thing that depends of how reliable this test is, is how strict it is. Also factors like clothing, footwear and the surface also need to be considered and when running the test again need to be kept the same. Cost Cost and reliability The hand grip dynamometer is needed for this test and can cost from £20 to £200, meaning it could be expensive. Reliability During this test you have to ensure that the dile is rest to 0 every time you have ago, other wise you will have a false reading. Also, the type of dynamometer you use could affect your result.

Specialist equipment
Assistant needed |
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| Cost Cost and reliability Reliability This test doesn't cost a lot to do as you can get skin calipers for around £20. The reliability of this test really matters on how well you or you assistant measures it. It is also important to measure the same parts of the body each time you do it. Cost Cost and reliability This test is fairly cheap to conduct as only a stopwatch (can use the one on a phone), cones and a measuring tape are needed. Reliability This test should be really reliable as long as your stopwatch works correctly and the same circuit is used each time with the same distance between each of the cones. Power Muscular endurance Flexibility (cm) Aerobic Endurance Muscular Strength (KG) Results Specialist equipment required (Skinfold calipers)
Assistant is needed |
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| Body composition (mm) |
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| Agility (Seconds) Balance There are a number of test you can do to test your balance, including: Fitness Tests Stork Stand You Tube Video Stork Stand Advantages Results Cost Cost and Reliability
Disadvantages Reliability Balance
Stork Stand Test
Flamingo Balance
Beam Walk The stork stand test is a common test used to asses your balance ability. Equipment Stork stand (seconds) Procedure: Remove your shoes
Put your hands on your hips
Put your foot you are not balancing on, against the inside of your knee
When the stopwatch starts you raise your heel and balanced
If you move you foot away from your knee, your heel touches the floor or you move in any way the test is over and the stopwatch is stopped Smooth surface
Stopwatch The only piece of equipment in this test that will cost is a stopwatch, however these are not expensive and you can also use the stopwatch on you mobile phone. As long as this test is done correctly and that you use the same stopwatch each time you do the test then it is very reliable. Only a stopwatch is needed so it is a cheap test to do
It is very simple to do
You can do the test anywhere you want as long as you have a smooth surface An assistant is needed |
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| Balance is very important in sport to keep control and stops you from falling over at speed. "the ability to retain the center of mass above the base of support when stationary or moving" Muscular Endurance Equipment Sit-up Bleep Test Procedure You Tube Video Sit-up Bleep Test Advantages Results Cost Cost and Reliability Disadvantages Muscular Endurance (level) Reliability The sit-up bleep test is a common test used to know your muscualr endurance abilities. Flat surface
Mat
Stopwatch
Bleep test audio
Cd player/phone/ipad Remove shoes
Lay down on themat in sit up position
When the track starts you do a sit up each time there is a 'bleep'.(these will get fast and faster)
if you dont do a sit up properly, or dont do one your out and you should recored the level you have got up to Requires specilist equipment (bleep test audio)
Assistant is required The test is east to set up and compleet
can be completed indoors and outdoors. |
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| This test requires the bleep test audio, however this is now free to download from a number of sites or you can download it onto you ipad/phone for around a £1. The reliability of the test is down to how strict the test is constructed (ie, if you are doing the sit ups correctly). "The ability to use voluntary muscles many times without becoming tired." Muscular endurance is exstremly important for people who play sports that last for a while. Such as hockey, football, tennis, country running..ect This is becuase their musles have to work for longer periods of time. Power Fitness Test Equipment Sargent Jump Procedure You Tube Video Sargent jump test Cost Cost and reliability Results Advantages Disadvantages Sargent Jump (cm) Reliability Power is essential in all sports, weather it's for 'taking off' before you run, kicking/ throwing/ hitting a ball, escape past you defender or keep up with the person your marking. There are a number of test we can do to test power, including: Sargent Jump
Vertical Jump
Squat Jump First you should chalk the end of your finger tips
Then stand side onto the wall
Reach up as high as possible with one hand and mark the wall
Then from a static position jumps as high as possible and mark the wall again
Then measures the distance between the first mark and the second mark
Repeat 3 times and record your best score •Wall
•Tape measure
•Step Ladder
•Chalk The aim of the Sargent jump is to asses your elastic leg strength •Minimal equipment required
•Simple to set up and conduct
•Can be conducted almost anywhere
Disadvantages
•Specific facilities required
•Assistant required to administer the test Not a lot of equipment is required to complete the test
The test is simple to set up and complete
The test can be done both indoors and outdoors
You can complete the test on your own The Sargent jump test is a very low cost test to complete as no specialized equipment is needed. As long as your measuring is accurate this test is accurate, however this test only measures your elastic leg strength. So to get a full idea of your power, you will need to do a range of tests. Speed Fitness tests 50m sprint Procedure Cost Cost and Reliability Advantages Results Speed the differential rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time Speed is not just how fast someone can run perform a moment or activity but is dependent on how quickly they can accelerate from a stationary position.
Speed is crucial for success in many sports. There are many tests we can do to test our speed including:

30m sprint
50m sprint
60m sprint The aim of the 50m sprint is to determine acceleration and speed. Equipment Flat surface
measuring tape
stopwatch
cone markers
Assistant Warm up
Start from a standing position with one front in front of the other behind the starting line
When your assistant gives the command 'go' set off and they should start the stopwatch
When you cross the line your assistant should press stop of the stopwatch
Record you time Disadvantages This test in cheap to conduct as no specialist equipment is required. Reliability The reliability of this test depends on the weather conditions and running surface as they can affect the results. To ensure good results measure this test on a track/ dry surface on a dry day or inside. You can work out you result using the speed acceleration test Calculator - http://www.brianmac.co.uk/sprints/pred250.htm Minimal equipment required
Simple to set up and complete
Can be conducted anywhere
(indoors and outdoors)
More than one person can complete the test at a time Weather can effect your results
You need an assistant to help
It take a bit of time to set out the markings to do the test |
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Full transcript