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The Gilded Age

So heres the prezi. make sure u have studies this and be familiar with the reading packet and anything u dont know.
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Theresa Nelson

on 22 January 2014

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Transcript of The Gilded Age

What is the Gilded Age?
1865-1900
time of unrest, economical and social change, expansion, and political corruption
this unit focuses on the political corruption of the time which includes
rise of political machines
lame duck presidents including an assassination
republican
elected as a result of compromise and questionable loss of votes
became lame duck immediately
announced he would serve 1 term
problems:
RR strike
problem not gilded
depression/deflation
PROBLEM IS GILDED
Spoils System and Customs House battle
GUILDED
begins to be solved, but not resolved until Harrison
Hayes Presidency, 1876-1880

Election of 1880
Republicans: Garfield and Arthur
Democrats: Winifred Scott Hancock
Republican party was split because Half-Breeds didn't like the ticket
Republicans win

Garfield/Arthur Presidencies
Democrats win 1884 election because of Republican Arthur getting rid of spoils
Problems:
Democratic President has to work with a Republican Congress
Big businesses became monopolies
Interstate Commerse Act
Pension
Cleveland vetoes bill to reduce spending
Pension: money promised to Union soldiers when they reach a certain age
Tariff- a tax on improts
supported by businessmen
not solved during Cleveland's 1st term

Cleveland's Presidency (1st term)
Harrison was unpopular and blunt, so he quickly made enemies in Congress
Speaker of the House: Thomas Reed, Czar Reed
powerful
didn't think blacks were good enough to be in congress, but he wasn't racist
1st Issue- Civil Rights Bill
southerners were preventing blacks from voting
passed the house but not the senate because Southerners used filibustering
made agreements with Silver and Business states if they didn't support this bill.
Harrison Presidency, 1888-1892
monopoly: when businesses prevent fair competition
demands for goods and people transport grows
rail roads and what supports them leads to big businesses
railroads begin to pool and make business bigger- corporation
eliminate competition
create monopolies
hurt farmers who relied on railroads for shipping and storing
Munn v. Illinois said that railroads had to keel prices consistent based on weight and distance
not followed - Guilded
Railroad Monopolies
Harrison v. Cleveland v. Weaver
Cleveland wins because of the spending Harrison did; big businesses didn't like silver purchase act and sherman antitrust act
reformers wanted something to be done about POLITICAL MACHINES
political leaders who ran a city the way they wanted it to be and often did things illegally ie. Tweed Ring
Labor unions and mining strike not delt with by Rep.Congress
Cleveland's 2nd Term
civil service: the reform that all federal government workers had to take a test to make sure they qualified
spoils system: giving political party supporter government jobs even is they aren't qualified
kickback: giving money to someone for helping you do a job/get business
graft: charging more than need and pocketing the difference
rebate: giving someone money so they will use your business instead of another one
monopoly: when a corporation buys out smaller businesses and forms a trust that leads to a monopoly, which is illegal and eliminates competition
trust: where corporations create one huge business and creates a monopoly
populism: political party idea that supports the needs of common people and farmers
History Terms
mugwumps:old Algonquin Indian word for chief or nigh-muck-a-muck; name for Republicans who were against reforms
half-breeds:republicans who were half-loyal to the platform, didn't support spoils, led by Blaine
stalwarts:old-fashioned Republican bosses who believed in spoils system
dark horse candidate: a candidate that little is known about-Garfield and Arthur
lame duck: president that only serves one term
patronage: another word for spoils
cooperative: farmers groups that gather together to purchase things with split costs and help eachother avoid debt
tariff: tax on imports
antitrust: against trusts
History Terms
The Gilded Age
Depression & Deflation
hurt farmers-in debt
farmers pushed for "cheaper $" by coining more silver and printing more paper $
silver dollar would lead to inflation-helped farmers
"free silver"-unlimited mining of silver
Bland-Allison Act, 1878
buy and coin of $2million worth of silver money per month by government
Hayes vetoed bill because he supported gold-backed money, but Congress overrode and it became a law
this act DID NOT solve depression problem, but Congress kept it
GUILDED
Railroad Strike
Railroad workers went on strike -- railroads stopped running
effected Federal business-- mail could not travel, money couldn't travel between banks
Grant sent federal troops and told the bosses/owners that he would send a mediator and they had to work out the problems or the company would be bought out
problems solved, not guilded
Spoils System
spoils system- giving jobs to supporters of a political party even if they aren't qualified
Hayes opposed this even though most Republicans liked it
created a Civil Service Commission to create a civil service test to make sure you were qualified
Customs House Battle
New York Customs House was where 2/3 the tariff was collected
Controlled by Stalwarts
Hayes asked workers to resign or be fired because they weren't qualified
won the "Battle", but he became a lame duck and the Democrats won seats in Congress
Garfield Presidency:
Short lived presidency
Arthur was a "dark horse"
part of the Credit Moblier scandal
people doubted his integrity
Garfield attacks the spoils issue/civil service
Charles Guitau
supported the Republican ticket during the election
was promised a job by spoils but he wasn't qualified
assassinated Garfield because of his stand on spoils
Arthur becomes president
Arthur Presidency
Sets up Civil Service Commission again to get rid of spoils
Stalwarts are very unhappy
1883- Civil Service Act/Pendleton Act signed
set qualifications for government jobs
Stalwarts eliminated
Arthur is not nominated for 1884 elections because of
History Terms
free silver: unlimited mining and coining of silver
Cheap money: paper money backed by sliver
forclosure: when someone, in this case the farmers, cannot pay for their property so it is taken
filibuster: when a Congressman talks for as long as they need to delay the voting for a bill and hopefully get more support; used on the Civil Rights and Tariff bills
grange: a larger group of farmers

Patrons alliance grange Populist party

Presidential Election of 1888
Republican: Harrison
Democrat: Cleveland
tariff and pension were the issues discussed in the campaigns
corrupt campaign because Republicans bought votes from swing states
illegal
Harrison practices back porch campaigning
Cleveland doesn't carry any industrial states
Harrison wing
2nd Issue- Mckinley Tariff
tariff on all articles produced outside of the US in competition with US products
silver senators made an agreement that they would vote for tariff if industrial states voted for greater silver production- passed
3rd Issue- Bland-Allison act repealed and replaced with Sherman Silver Purchase Act
says that 4.5 million ounces of silver would be purchased and coined by the federal government every month
inflates currency, hurts farmers
major economical issue
sighed by Harrison
caused foreign purchase issues
4th Issue- Sherman Antitrust Act, 1890
helps farmers and small businesses against big trusts
says it is a crime for big businesses to prevent competition
not enforced
act itself is not guilded but since it was not enforced it was
5th Issue- Billion Dollar Congress
decreased treasury significantly in the four years and harrison and congress passed these bills- therefore Democrats earned seats in Congressional election and Democrats win nest presidential election.
Populist party begins to grow
Interstate Commerse Act, 1887
caused by monopolies
created commission to regulate trade and railroad abuses
Said:
rates had to be just and reasonable
rates had to be published
rebates are outlawed
price discrimination is illegal
Not guilded
His Presidency
Silver v. Gold issue led to gold crisis
Silver Purchase Act repealed
Wilson-Gorman Tariff replaces McKinely tariff
Income tax established by the 16th amendment
Depression continues
Labor Strikes continue and challenge Sherman Antitrust Act
federal troops get involved
No "cheap money" given out
JP Morgan tries to solve the gold crisis by selling bonds to europeans for gold
Becomes a Lame Duck because the problems he faced hurt the Democratic Party- Republicans win 1896 election
The Populist Party:
change in profits for farmers after war
expensive to run farms
bank loans used collateral to back the loan and it was risky
Farmers Alliances formed
Patrons of Husbandry
formed by Oliver Kelly
formed granges, cooperatives, and party
farmers became tenants
loan interest was high
Sherman-Silver Act repealed- farmers hurting
William Jennings Bryan
Make sure you read the yellow paper on the Populist party!!!!
Full transcript