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Kidnapping In Italy

ITL 392 Final Project
by

Stephanie Roland

on 12 December 2012

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Transcript of Kidnapping In Italy

The Crime Epidemic of 1970s Italy The Economy Kidnapping In Italy A Decade of Terror The economic, social and political turmoil throughout the country led to a major increase in crime, including bombings, shootings, and kidnappings
The decade became known as "Anni di Piombo" (Years of Lead)









In the 1970s, there were hundreds of kidnappings throughout Italy, motivated by:
Money
Politics Italy experienced unprecedented economic growth after WWII
Low wages & demand for Italian products promoted expansion
Flooding destroyed 1/3 of the land at the end of the decade
Economic expansion slowed
Government called for development of the South, disappointing results
Discontent with low wages - economic boom ended 1960s The Economy
1970s Uneven economic growth
Hit hard by the gas crises
Economy still managed to grow, but at a much slower rate
Inflation and unemployment rose
The lira lost power
Production fell All factors led to recession The Society High Profile Cases:
Cristina Mazzotti High Profile Cases:
Cristina Mazzotti High Profile Cases:
John Paul Getty III Kidnapping for Ransom Throughout 1970s, there was a spike in the kidnapping of children

Southern criminals would kidnap children of wealthy Northerners & demand ransoms

1978 - kidnappings rose to about 600

Setting of Niccolò Ammaniti's "I'm Not Scared"
- Based on the true story of a Milanese child abducted and held for ransom in the South

Children were taken and held in the forgotten reaches of the Mezzogiorno 18 year old daughter of wealthy grain broker Helios Mazzotti

Abducted on June 26, 1975 by 5 kidnappers in Eupilio

Ransom demanded

Kept in a hole outside kidnapper's home Consistently drugged with barbiturates

Family paid $2.3 million ransom

Body was found in a landfill on September 1, 1975

Had died of an overdose 40 days earlier Son of John Paul Getty II, heir to the Getty Oil empire

At 16, snatched off a street in Rome

Taken by criminals from Calabria on July 10, 1973

Kidnappers demanded a $17 million ransom

Grandfather, JPG Senior, refused to pay In November, a Roman newspaper received a package containing JPG III's ear

Family paid $2.9 million

JPG III found alive on December 15 in Calabrian mountains

Was held in a cave, tied to a stake

Suffered lifelong trauma after kidnapping High Profile Cases: John Paul Getty III Kidnapping for Power The Red Brigades
(Brigate Rosse) The 1970s were a time of political upheaval and unrest in Italy

Left and right wing parties struggled for power, leading to violence

During the "Anni di Piombo" there were shootings, bombings, kidnappings, and assassinations

Many political groups struggling for power, the most well-known being the Red Brigades and the Christian Democrats Militant communist organization

Founded in 1970

Sought to create a revolutionary state through violence

Wanted to overthrow any democracy and capitalism

Considered to be extremist Communists

Responsible for many bombings, robberies, kidnappings and assassinations
Kidnapping of Aldo Moro
A revival of the Italian People's Party

Center-right wing

After WWII broke any ties with Communism/Socialism

Supported by the US - won general election in 1948

Believed in the representation of all Italian Catholics

Consisted of conservative and liberal views The Christian Democrats
(Democrazia Cristiana) High Profile Cases: Aldo Moro Economy Culture Northern Italy Industrialized/wealthy

More"European"

Export-related industries
FIAT
Steel
Textiles
Machinery More modern/westernized way of life

Family is still important, but so is individual

Children more independent - leave home, go away to school, etc

Drive towards economic success
No "riposo"

Religion less important Southern Italy The 1960s and 1970s were a time of great social unrest
Factory workers began staging huge strikes all over the North
Southerners migrated to the North in large numbers in search of work
Generally were paid 1/3 less than Northern workers
Thousands of workers performed walkouts and occupations of factories, sometimes leading to riots
Workers demanded:
higher wages
better working conditions
More fair contract renewals 1968 - Revolutionary groups sprang up and joined striking workers

1969 - "Hot Autumn" saw one and a half million workers on strike

1973 - largest amount of workers on strike since the "Hot Autumn" - over 6 million

Trade union membership skyrocketed
By 1975, membership of two main unions increased by 2 and a half million The Politics The Christian Democratic party controlled the government

Corruption, bribery, Mafia dealings were common

Constant power struggles occured between far right and far left-wing extremists
Conflicting views of Communism, Socialism, Neo-Fascism and Capitalism led to violence and acts of terrorism from both sides

Between 1969 - 1981, over 2,000 politically motivated murders Prime Minister of Italy from 1963-1968 and 1974-1976

Leader of the Christian Democratic Party from 1975-1978

Wanted to form an alliance with the Italian Socialist Party to further the reach of the DC

Aimed to create a cabinet that consisted of DC members and members of the Italian Communist Party High Profile Cases: Aldo Moro March 16, 1978, members of the Red Brigades murdered 5 bodyguards and kidnapped Moro in Rome

Demanded the release of several political prisoners

Government refused to negotiate High Profile Cases: Aldo Moro Held for 55 days

Wrote letters to family and party members

Kidnappers realized their demands would not be met, killed Moro

Body was found on May 9, 1978 After the Kidnapping Moro had been popular with both sides
Condemned kidnapping and murder
Caused Red Brigades to lose power
After many arrests, broke into factions High Profile Cases:
Cristina Mazzotti High Profile Cases:
John Paul Getty III High Profile Cases: John Paul Getty III The Society Culture
Traditional
More interested in keeping traditions than modernizing

Religion a major part of life

Much slower lifestyle
"Riposo"

Importance of family
"Mammismo"
Extended families living together Economy Rural/impoverished

Little industrial development

Peasant Farming and Fishing play major roles

High rates of unemployment

Per capita income is 1/3 less than the North

Mafia control huge sectors A Country Divided Works Cited "1962-1973: Worker and student struggles in Italy | libcom.org." libcom.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2012.
<http://libcom.org/history/1962-1973-worker-student-struggles-italy>.

Catanzaro, Raimondo. The Red Brigades and Left-Wing Terrorism in Italy. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991. Print.

Fariello, A. "PHENOMENON OF HOSTAGE-TAKING - THE ITALIAN EXPERIENCE." National Criminal Justice
Reference Service. Universite De Montreal, Centre International De Criminologie
Comparee, 1976. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=49377>

HABERMAN, CLYDE. "Italy Sets Hard Line on Kidnappers and on Ransom - New York Times." The New York Times -
Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Nov. 2012.
<http://www.nytimes.com/1990/02/18/world/italy-sets-hard-line-on-kidnappers-and-on-ransom.html>.

La Repubblica. " Tradito dall'impronta dopo 33 anni Preso il boss dell'omicidio Mazzotti - cronaca - Repubblica.it ." La
Repubblica.it - Homepage. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Nov. 2012.
<http://www.repubblica.it/2008/06/sezioni/cronaca/caso-mazzotti/caso-mazzotti/caso-mazzotti.html>.Meade, Robert C.. The Red Brigades: The Story of Italian Terrorism. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990. Print. Kidnapping Today At the end of the decade, Italy adopted a policy of blocking the bank accounts of targeted families, making them unable to pay ransoms
With profit motive removed, kidnappings went down almost immediately

1991 - Reinforced this policy and also lengthened prison terms for anyone involved in kidnappings

Kidnapping rates have never returned to that of the 1970s, but it is still a common practice
Mafia tactic
Politically motivated
Financial gain
Recent cases:
Berlusconi's right-hand man
Wife of a millionaire owner of a construction company
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