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The Division of Labor: Ch. 5-7
Transcript of The Division of Labor: Ch. 5-7
CH. 5-7 Durkheim CH. 5 Increasing Preponderance of
Organic Solidarity Mechanical Solidarity v. Organic Solidarity Mechanical Societies
simple bonds based on similarity
people are self-sufficient
low division of labor
everyone is like identical gears in the same machine Organic Society
complex bonds based on interdependence
individuals specialize in one area
high division of labor
everyone is a different organ in the body Where society was once connected by similarities (mechanical),
it is increasingly thread together with the interdependence on each of
its members(organic). As men become more highly specialized, and less self-sufficient,
social ties become harder to break up;
we need each other to function as a society
just as a body needs all of its organs. The Strength of Mechanical Solidarity varies with: Law of History:
Mechanical (SIMPLE) Solidarity: at first isolated, should progressively lose ground
Organic (COMPLEX) Solidarity: gradually becomes preponderant (superior influence/power)
Ideal type of society: resemblance (absolutely homogeneous mass—parts could not be distinguishable from the next person)
- The mass would be devoid of any definite form of articulation (p.126)
- horde Chapter 6: The Increasing Preponderance of Organic Solidarity and its Consequences (continued...) CH. 7 1.Relationship between common consciousness and individual consciousness.
The more the common consciousness overlaps, the stronger the bond
2.Average intensity of the states of collective consciousness.
which one possesses more "energy"
3.The degree of determinateness of these states
the more beliefs are “clear cut” the less they allow for individual divergence (105) The punishments of certain crimes can be seen to vary across time with their corresponding importance to collective society.
ex: adultery used to be punishable by death
The crimes against breach of tradition have all but disappeared from most societies.
most common in mechanical societies.
Crimes dealing religion have also mostly disappeared.(111)
“here is a whole host of sentiments that have ceased to be counted among the strong and well-defined states of the common consciousness” Criminological Types "made up of very broad and very general articles of faith much more than of special beliefs and well-determined practices.
This explains …the birth of free thinking within the Christian religion [that] took place relatively early on.” "If faith is common ...it is individual in its object." “Religion extends over an ever diminishing area of social life. Originally it extended to everything; everything social was religious—the two words were synonymous.” (119) “the individual personality must have became a much more important factor” in social life; it’s importance “must have increased more than the common consciousness.” (118) “the individual thus feels…much less acted upon…” Organic Solidarity and
Contractual Solidarity Spencer "Social harmony derives from the division of labor" (149) Cooperation produced by everyone following their own interest. Distinguishing mark of organized societies What makes a contract? Spencer: "As freedom of action increases, the relationship of contracts become general" Durkheim: “...at any given time all individual wills should be in agreement regarding the common foundations of the social organization and consequently every individual consciousness should pose to itself the political problem in all its generality.” (150) "Self-interest is the least
constant thing in the world" (152) ‘Clan’: segmentary is based on clans
- a horde (organization) that has ceased to be independent and has become an element in a more extensive group
-A large number of individuals
- homogeneous is stronger bond than heterogeneous—the society is made up of similar segments, and these in turn comprise only homogeneous elements, (p.128)
- Segmentary societies based on clans: those peoples that have been constituted from an association of clans (p.127)
Term such societies as “segmentary;” formed from the replication of aggregates that are like one another (analogous)
- Relate to family and body politic
- Family members consider themselves kin to one another
- Blood kinship is what keeps them united I: "CLAN" More recent societies have a more substantial legal code EX: Indians of North America (Iroquois):- Individuals of the same age were linked to one another in the same degree of kinship- Adults of both sexes were equal- Chiefs enjoyed no superior status- Treat each other as brothers Individual activity increasing Repressive law decreasing and restitutory law is increasing to regulate relationships between different social functions (153) EX: Kabyle: political unit is the clan…
- fixed in the form of a village (djemmaa)
- several djemmaas for a tribe (arch')
- several tribes form the confederation (thak'ebilt), which is the highest form of political society Family: a huge society that included thousands of people descended, according to tradition, from a single ancestor (Jew)
EX: Jewish class are inaccurately called families- thousands of people descended, according to the tradition, from a single ancestor Contractual relationships grow as division of labor increases Non-contractual relationships also increasing [all of these societies are the home par excellence of mechanical solidarity] II: The Structure of Society - organic solidarity is preponderant Domestic Law - Not a homogeneous society
.. a system of different organs (individuals; humans) each one of which has a special role and which themselves are formed from differentiated parts
.. different societal roles
.. no longer formed in terms of any ancestral relationship
..the natural and necessary environment (is not in which they were born) rather their profession
.. their function (in society) is distributed between individuals based on their individual talent Relationships non-contractual: based on personal status Adoption & Marriage 2 Social Types:
1.) Progressive; 2.) Regressive
...the one has only made progress in the proportion to which the other has regressed EX: Tribe of Levites: priestly functions among the Jewish people
EX: Iroquois: social constitution based on clans exists in its pure state Segmentary Organization 1. Progressive roles: individuals within a society can or improve their social, political, and economic structures 2. Regressive roles: individuals within society regress in their social, political and economic structures Being absorbed into the mass of society Has it's own special functions within society. No longer autonomous. Contracts Has to be agreed upon by both sides, otherwise it's not a contract Has to abide by certain laws Individual cannot alter certain aspects “...when men bind one another by contract it is because, through the division of labor, whether this be simple or complex, they have need of one another” (160) Certain established duties and rights developed over time the existence of contract law, very little developed--the economic functions are beginning to separate out and become organized In Rome, this dual movement of progression and regression is continued...
- Roman clans are the gens (which was the basis for the ancient Roman constitution)
- the organization based upon clans is in fact only one species of a more extensive genus, the segmentary organization
- the mass of the population is no longer divided up according to blood relationships (whether they're real or fictitious) but according to land divisions (p.135) II: continued... Government The land divisions have something artificial about them (much weaker power of resistance)
- when one is born into a clan, one cannot change anything more than its relatives
- local diversity can only be maintained in so far as a diversity of environments exist
- therefore territorial divisions are less based on the nature of things, consequently lose their significance
Segmentary organizations vanishes and organization by profession covers it more completely
- in every town, within its immediate neighborhood, forms a group within which work is divided up, but strives to be self-sufficient
Town: aspires to develop every kind of industry to supply the countryside
- Concentrate commerce and transport in its area
- Grouped according to their occupation
- Each trade guild is like a town, living a life of its own, (p.137)
..when Christian societies sprang Normal for society, especially
organized ones ”...outcome of the progress of the division of labour itself and of the process of transformation,
whose effect is to facilitate the passage of societies
of a segmentary type to the organised type” (168) “What renders the organ of government more important or less so is not because people are more pacific or less so. But it grows through the progress of the division of labour, as societies include a greater number of different organs which are more closely linked to one another” (171) “No individual is sufficient unto himself, it is from society that he receives all that is needful, just as it is for society that he labours” (173) III: Biological Development Families live side by side in a state of great independence and develop gradually, so to form small societies (clans)
- Lacking any other internal organization, and only hold together through the action of external circumstance and through the habit of living their life in common, (p.129). Social life is pervaded by religion (p.130)
- Primitive organization
Social masses formed from homogeneous elements; since the collective type is highly developed (individual types are rudimentary)
Communism is the necessary product of that special cohesion that swallows up the individual within the group
- Person=distinctive (freeing himself from the group/masses)
Division of Labor: individual frees himself from the group—person becomes a distinct individual
Social solidarity more flexible (p.131)
- society produces this religious character (suprahuman—which lies in the common consciousness)
- Individuals are dependents of the collective type, rely on central authority
Solidarity remains mechanical so long as the division of labor has not developed further: attains its maximum energy
EX: Roman family (p.130) – descendants are indistinguishable from those of the owner to the object he posses
- Solidarity that they express remains mechanical Capital:Like the capital, the chief towns in the provinces are growing because of the concentration of provincial administration, provincial institutions, collections and schools- Mentally ill/deranged and sick were gathered into one particular area
The different towns tend increasingly to develop certain specializations, so that we could distinguish between university town, civil service towns, factory towns, commercial towns, watering-places and rentier towns- Large scale industries- Special schools - The lower animals are made up of similar segments
“Colonies” – even at the very lowest point on the scale—the elements are similar to each other, as well as homogeneous in composition
‘every colony whose members are made up of continuous tissues is in reality an individual,’ (p.139)
In the animal world, an individuality ‘which is produced outside any combination of organs,’ (which is what other societies have termed ‘segmentary’) (p.140)
- Structural plan is clearly the same and solidarity is of the same kind-
Animal colony is mechanically intertwined with one another (they can only act as a whole—joined together)
- Activity is therefore collective
Just as the segmentary type [society] vanishes as we advance up the scale of social evolution, the colony type disappears as we move higher up in the scale of organisms
..the structure, like the solidarity, derives from the division of labor
- Animal (once it becomes an organ) has its own sphere of action, moves independently (does not impinge on anyone)
In organic as in social evolution the division of labor begins by using the framework of segmentary organization, but only eventually to free itself and to develop in an autonomous way, (p.141) Therefore… distinguished between organic (complex) and mechanical (simple) solidarity
- The first types of solidarity develop in inverse relations
- Two corresponding social types, one regresses regularly as the other progresses, and the latter is the one that is defined by the social division of labor
Importance of the division of labor:
- Gives cohesion to the societies in which we live
- Determines the characteristics which go to make up their structure, and…
- Leads us to predict that in the future its role, from this viewpoint, can only increase, (p.141) IV: Individuality/Absolute Power The place of the individual in society—has grown with civilization
- The absorption of the individual into the group is allegedly the result of a constraint and an artificial organization necessity by the state of warfare that is endemic in lower societies
o Especially in war, union is necessary for success
o A group cannot defend itself against another group or subdue it save on
condition that it acts as one unit
- Individual forces must be clustered together in a concentration that cannot be broken up
Individuals Distinctions within Groups
Homogeneity is the distinguishing mark of the primitive societies
- If an individual is not distinct from the group, it is because the individual consciousness is almost indistinct from the collective consciousness Spencer: Industrial
- These societies are subject to despotic government, the individual has no sphere of action that is peculiarly his own, as is proved by the general institution of communism
- Social evolution has attempted to produce the most perfect types since ‘no governmental force exists at first save that of the common will expressed by the assembled horde’ (p.143)
- The individual can be subjected only to a collective despotism, for the members of a society can only be dominated by a force that is superior to themselves, and there is only one of these that possesses this quality: that of the group
- The strength of authoritarian governments: derives from the very constitution of society
- Individuals are subordinated themselves to the one who represented it (collective authority)
- From the group that they draw their strength (once the strength is organized, it becomes autonomous and renders them capable of personal action) (p.143) I: continued... III: continued... Chapter 5 Questions:
1.Why does Durkheim say that it is more difficult for “outsiders” to become assimilated into organic societies than into mechanical societies?
2.Why have crimes against tradition and religion “all but disappeared” from society?
Chapter 6 Questions:
1.What are the main differences between a mechanical and an organic society?
2.Which type of society has more of an even distribution of labor? Why?
Chapter 7 Questions:
1.What is Contractual Solidarity?
2.What is the role of government in an organized society regarding contracts? Discussion Questions: