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Ancient India Chapter 5 Section 1

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Kurt Hellenbrand

on 20 January 2016

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Transcript of Ancient India Chapter 5 Section 1

Ancient India
Essential Question:
How do India's rich history and culture affect the world today?

Chapter 5 Section 1
Geography and Indian Life
Key Question:
How do mountains and seasonal winds shape the climate of India?
Physical Geography of India
India is a

which is a large landmass that is part of a continent but is considered a separate region.
The subcontinent includes present-day Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, and most of Pakistan.
This area often referred to as South Asia.
Mountains and Waterways
Hindu Kush
and the
the highest mountains in the world.

They stretch along northern India, separating India from China and Asia.
The sub-continents rivers include the Ganges and the Indus. The two rivers carry water for irrigation. The silt they deposit makes the land fertile.

In ancient times, the Saraswati river was home to great cities-dried up, possibly because of an earthquake.
The Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, and Bay of Bengal surround India.

Tall mountains help block cold north winds from reaching much of India.
Temperatures are generally warm.
Seasonal wind systems called


shape India's climate.
The monsoons produce a wet or dry season in a region, sometimes with heavy rainfall.
Summer monsoon provides rain for India's crops, but they can also cause severe floods.

Cities in the Indus Valley
Key Question:

Why was the earliest Indian civilization located near the Indus River?
Huge earth mounds dot the Indus Valley. Near them people found burnt bricks and tiny stone seals covered with mysterious writing. Archeologists uncovered the ruins of an ancient civilization.
Early Inhabitants
Civilization along the Indus river began with agriculture.
Earliest farmers raised wheat and barley.
By 3000 B.C., they were growing cotton and making it into fabric-the first people in Asia to do so
cattle, sheep, goats, and chickens.
They also learned how to make copper and bronze tools.
People in the village traded with one another.
Over time, they began to trade with people from farther away.
The wealth they gained from trade helped them to develop a more complex culture.
Great Cities
By 2500 B.C., some villages had grown to be great cities.
The Indus and Saraswati valleys contained hundreds of cities.
At least 35,000 people may have lived in the largest and best-known cities: Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa.
Harappa gave its name to the entire culture.
Today the ancient culture that developed along the Indus river is called the
Harappan civilization
This civilization featured
planned cities
which were cities built according to design.
surrounded these cities with heavy protective walls.
City streets crossed each other in a neat grid with square corners.
Along the streets were homes, shops, and factories.
Also had large public buildings that may have been used for religious or government functions.
Map Labeling
Ganges River
Ganges Delta
Indus River
Yamuna River
Narmada River
Godavari River
Arabian Sea
Bay of Bengal
Indian Ocean
Sri Lanka
Physical Features
Himalaya Mountains
Hindu Kush
Mt. Everest
Western Ghats
Eastern Ghats
Ganges Plain
Thar Desert
Deccan Plateau
Krishna River
Brahmaputra River
Copy all bullet points
Copy all bullet points
Great Cities Continued
itself is a good example of this city planning.
Partially built on mud-brick platforms to protect it from flooding.
Thick brick wall about three and a half miles long surrounded it.
Inside was a
citadel that provided protection for the royal family and also served as a temple.
Streets in the grid system were as wide as 30 feet.
Walls divided districts from each other.
Houses varied in size.
Narrow lanes separated rows of houses that were laid out in blocks.
Dealing with Problems
Removing human waste.
In most ancient cities people retrieved water from a river or central well.
Dumped waste into open drainage ditches or carted it out of town.
Harappan was different...
Almost every house had a bathroom and toilet.
Underground sewers carried away the waste.
No other civilization achieved this level of convenience until the late 1800's
This requires careful planning and organization.
They believe Harappan had powerful leaders.
We do not know if priests or kings or a combination of both ruled the Harappans, but their government must have been strong.
What is the Key Question?
Essential Question Answers
How do India's rich history and culture affect the world today?
Planned cities
India's early religion
Indus Valley Culture
Key Question: River provided water for agriculture.
Harappan Culture
Key Question:

What were the cultural features of Harappan civilization?
A mysterious form of writing covered the stone seals that people found in the ruined cities.
Seals-small, square, clay objects inscribed with pictures and what is believed to be the Harappan Script.
Some of the seals may have indicated types of trade goods.
Scholars think 500 pictographs, or picture signs, of Harappan writing may stand for words, sounds, or both...but they are not sure.
No one has figured out how to read the writing, until then...
we can learn about this civilization by studying artifacts.
Harappan Religion
Archaeologists have not identified the site of any temples for specific deities, or gods,
but they have found evidence of religion.
Mohenjo-Daro had a huge public bath that may have been used for religious rituals
They have found figures of animals, such as bulls, that Indians still regard as holy.
Also found clay figurines that may be
deities (a god or goddess)
or simply dolls.
Priests likely prayed for good harvests and safety from floods.

Religious objects show links to modern Hindu culture.
Figures show what look like early likenesses of
Shiva, a major Hindu deity.
Other figures relate to a mother deity and the worship of a bull. All of these became a part of later Indian civilization.
A Widespread and Prosperous Culture
People across a wide region shared Harappan culture.
Harappan cities spread across an area that was about 500,000 square miles in size.
Nearly twice as big as Texas is today.
Cities shared a common design...it shows how widely the culture had spread.
Culture and Trade

Harappan people used standard weights and measures.
Across the region, they
made similar bronze statues and clay toys.
artifacts show that the people could afford to have more than just the basic necessities.
gained their wealth from agriculture and trade.
have found seals from the Indus Valley as far away as Mesopotamia.
These seals, made of carved stone, were probably used by the Indus merchants to identify their goods.
They traded timber, ivory, and beads.
Mesopotamians sold the Harappans silver, tin, and woolen cloth.
Trade began around 2370 B.C., and continued for many years.
Key Question: What were the cultural features of Harappan civilization?

Included a writing system
Urban life
Standard weights and measures
Indus Valley Culture Ends
Key Question: Why did Indus Valley civilization decline?

Slide show
Around 1700 B.C., the quality of buildings in the Indus Valley cities declined.
What happened? And why?
With your group, make a list of ideas that may have caused this civilization to decline.
One person from your group will share out your ideas.
Some historians think...write all
The Indus River changed course so that floods no longer fertilized the fields near the cities.
Others suggest that people wore out the valley's land.

The Indus Valley Civilization faced many environmental challenges
Yearly floods along the Indus River were unpredictable.
The rivers sometimes changed course.
The cycle of wet and dry seasons brought by the monsoon winds was unpredictable.

A Mystery Solved?
The fate of the cities remained a mystery until the 1970s.
Then, satellite images of the subcontinent of India revealed
evidence of ancient movements in the earth's crust.
movement probably caused earthquakes and floods.
movement also probably altered the course of the Indus River.
Impact of Disaster
Some cities along the river apparently suffered through these disasters and survived.
Other cities were destroyed.
The shifts may have caused another river, the Saraswati, to dry up.
Trade on this river became impossible, and cities began to die.
Harappan agriculture, also, would have been influenced by these events.
It is likely that these changes prevented production of large quantities of food.
This too may have forced people to leave the cities in order to survive.
Influence of Nomads
Another factor
might have had an impact on the Indian subcontinent...
A nomadic people from north of the Hindu Kush mountains swept into the Indus Valley around 1500 B.C.
The Indian civilization would grow again under the influence of these nomads.

Questions we still have about the Harappan Civilization:

Himalaya Mountains
Hindu Kush
Use colored pencils to show elevations.
India Websites
Why did the Indus Valley Decline? 1st Hour
War/Conflict/Greeks attacked
Religious reasons/New religion
Government declined/fallen
Elders died, forgot how to run the civilization/Lack of effort
Natural Disaster/Drought/Ruined buildings
Trade system declined
Ran out of resources

Decline of Indus Valley: 2nd Hour
Government-leader died
Natural Disaster: Monsoon, drought, lack of fertile soil, earthquake
War/Civil War
Gods upset
Animal take over
Ran out of resources
Over populated
Trade-values went down
One city goes down...they all go down!
Decline of Indus Valley: 3rd Hour
Gods gave them a "sign" to leave
Lack of leadership/died
War/Civil War/Invaded
Natural disaster: flood, earthquake, tornado, sandstorm, drought
Crop disease
Lack of resources
Moved to other areas-better resources
Decline in population
Trade declined/quality of/change in value/lack of surplus
Too much work
Sewer "malfunction"
Religion-lost "faith"
Full transcript