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Copy of Early Humankind (Our Ancestors)

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Yvonne Duran

on 4 August 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Early Humankind (Our Ancestors)

Early Humankind:
Surviving In The Wild: Life Before Wal-Mart

Çatalhöyük
http://www.smm.org/catal/activities/video_tours_and_interviews/movie_viewer/qt_viewer.php?movieid=big_screen&name=Çatalhöyük%20Overview

Click on: Get a Catalhoyuk Overview (upper left under Ian's picture)

1. Why is it important to study how people lived 9,000 years ago and what can we learn?
2. Why must archeologists make such careful recordings of the data they collect?
3. What types of material evidence do archeologists study?
4. What does the artwork tells us about early man?
Neolithic Society
9,000 years ago in Turkey
Lesson 5
The First Artists:
Coloring on the (CAVE) Walls
Cave Paintings and Storytelling at Lascaux, France
http://www.lascaux.culture.fr
Paleolithic Art
Paleolithic Man
Flocabulary: Hunters-Gatherers
http://www.flocabulary.com/hunter-gatherers/
1. Listen to the song and pay attention to the lyrics.
2. Click on the hyperlinks and read the text
3. Review the Challenge Questions
A. Do you know the answers?
B. Can you explain the answers to yourself or a partner?
C. Explain two of the following questions on your exit ticket.
1. What is easier? Picking fruit or hunting? Do you disagree or agree with the answer?
2. What did irrigation allow people to do more easily? Why?
3.As a result of division of labor, why does his aunt get to open the frozen yogurt stand?
D. You will paste this exit ticket into your social studies binder tomorrow.
http://www.estuaria.es/english/matbil/index.html
http://factbooks.blogspot.com/2007/10/what-kinds-of-tools-did-early-man-use.html
http://earlyhumans.mrdonn.org/
http://www.anthro4n6.net/lucy/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australopithecus
http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/80beats/2008/08/26/neanderthal-tools-were-a-match-for-early-homo-sapiens/
http://www.ecotao.com/holism/hu_sap.html
http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/sciences/lifescience/physicalanthropology/prehistoricman/homohabilis/homohabilis.html
www.localhistories.org/homoerectus.html
www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/humans/humankind/o.html
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_kind_of_tools_did_homo_sapiens_use
http://www.elephant.se/cro-magnon.php?open=Man%20and%20elephants
www.earlyhumans.mrdonn.org/cromagnon.html



Information Bibliography

Main Idea – Prospering agricultural villages, food surpluses and new technologies led to the rise of civilization

Why It Matters? – Agriculture led to larger, more organized communities that led to cities = Ancient Civilizations
Civilization
Neolithic Megalithism
Stonehenge in England
Invention of new tools – hoes, sickles and plow – made the task of farming easier
Farming villages grow to become cities
To cultivate more land and produce extra crops irrigation systems were developed
This resulted in food surpluses
Development of a new class of people – craftspeople
Development of Trade
The wheel and sail allowed traders to transport goods over long distances

Villages Grow into Cities
Catal Huyuk – largest early settlement
8,000 BCE
Located in South Central Turkey
Early village life (6000 people)
Large crops of wheat, barley and peas.
Raised sheep and cattle.
Development of skilled workers (division of labor)
Potters and weavers
Obsidian products such as mirrors, jewelry and knives
Religious relics
Trade

Settlements -Villages-Cities
What do these ancient civilizations have in common?

Africa – The Nile River Valley – wheat, barley and other crops

China: Huang He River region – a grain called millet.
In the Chang Jiang River delta – wild rice

Middle East- Tigris-Euphrates Rivers-barley, onions, grapes

India-Ghanges and Indus Rivers-wheat

Where: Farming Develops in Many Areas
How: Early Farming Methods-Subsistence

Slash and Burn Farming – Cut trees and grass, then burn to clear land
Remaining ashes fertilized the land

Domestication of Animals –Horses, dogs, goats and pigs

Farmers and pastoral nomads both domesticated animals

Neolithic Revolution cont.

The Neolithic Revolution is the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture.

This transition is also a change from a nomadic lifestyle to a more settled, agrarian-based one.

Agriculture gives humans more control over their food supply and allows them to grow extra food and store it.

NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION
Who: Neolithic farmers-historians believe women may have been the very first farmers, the first to domesticate plants and animals.
Neolithic Humans and Hunting Tools
Early Humans...
1. ...were vegetarians
2. ...wrote down their thoughts in words
3. ...lived small groups of 20-30 peeps
4. ...got their tools at Wal-mart
5. ... spoke a language that sounded like Chinese.
6. ... built shelters because of the cold.
7. ... first lived in Asia.
8. ... were nomadic and never moved.
9. ... ate fruits and nuts that women gathered.
10. ...painted caves because they were bored.
True, False, or Unknown
HOW DID THEY MAKE TOOLS?

Technology: use of knowledge to make inventions that solve problems and help humans live a better life.

Tools – Needed tools to hunt animals.

Fire-500,000 years ago (could control it)

Built shelters with natural resources
Technology
HUNTERS: Meat-Eaters
Food:
Hunters (Men) and Gatherers (Women)

Homes Life:
Nomadic (moved from place to place)
Groups of 20-30 peeps
Cave shelters
Built shelters to survive cold
(Ice Age 70,000 to 10,000 years ago)

Paleolithic = “Old Stone Age”

Mary Leaky – Finds footprints in Tanzania
Australopithecines – walked upright

Donald Johanson – Finds female skeleton in Ethiopia (Lucy). Oldest hominid found (3.5 million years old)

Neanderthals (200,000 B.C. to 30,000 B.C.)
Cro-Magnon (40,000 to 8,000 B.C.)

Many more....
Famous Findings
Social Changes: Social classes with varying wealth, power and influence begin to emerge.

Organized Religion: Farmers worshiped gods that were believed to have power over rain, wind and other natural forces

Early city dwellers developed religions based on earlier religions. As populations grew, common spiritual values became lasting religious traditions

Villages Grow into Cities and Cultures Evolve
Main Idea – Development of agriculture spurred an increase in population and the growth of a settled way of life, or human settlements.

Why it Matters? – New methods for obtaining food and the development of technology laid the foundations for modern civilizations.

What Changed?
Humans Try to Control Nature
What: Agricultural Revolution/Neolithic Revolution
(Food gathering to food producing)

When: From 10,000/8,000 B.C.E. to 3000 B.C.E.

Why: Causes of the Neolithic Revolution
Ice Age is Over at about 10,000 B.C.E.
Change in Climate – Rising temperature worldwide = Longer growing seasons and drier lands
Neolithic = “New Stone Age”
landscape

THE NEOLITHIC LIFE

Knifes
Arrowheads
Axe hands

PREHISTORIC TOOLS

Art and Culture
When: Paleolithic Era: 2.5 million years ago -10,000 years ago.

Archaelogists
– Find bones and artifacts that provide evidence of early human life

Palentologist
– Date bones, artifacts and fossils

Anthropologist
– Study ancient human culture

Cultue: the way of life of a group, how they get things done.
Human Origins in Africa
Prehistory is the time from which no written record exists.
Human Prehistory: Paleolithic and Neolithic Ages.

WHAT IS PREHISTORY?

Prehistory – 2500 B.C.
1. Evidence of Early Man
2. Paleolithic Age
3. Rock and Roll
Lascaux
Many Others


Paleolithic Painting
Çatal Hüyük

Middle East India Central America China Southeast Asia

8,000 BCE 7,000 BCE 6,500 BCE 6,000 BCE 5,000 BCE

SLASH-AND-BURN Farming

Agriculture developed independently
in different parts of the world.
When: 8,000 BCE – 5,000 BCE

Advanced

Technology

Record-

Keeping

Complex

Institutions

Specialized

Workers

Advanced

Cities

10 000

Blades

50 000
200 000
Later hand axes

Early hand axes

1 million

2.5 million

Pebble tools and Choppers

Years ago
Tools Time Chart
Where: Earliest humans originated in Africa, but
Paleolithic Man lived on all the major continents.

Technology: Farming Tools:
Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
Motivating by the need to eat:
They invented tools such as spears, digging sticks and knives.
Over 100 different tools were made from bone, stone and wood.
Planned hunts:
Studied animal habits and stalked prey.
Language: Advanced skill in spoken language
Early Homo Sapiens (Wise Men) 200,000
Identical to modern humans
Paleolithic Art:
Cave Paintings from charcoal and animal blood- all over
Sculptures of animals and human figures

Clothes:
Needle-like tools for sewing hides together
Necklaces of seashells, lion teeth and bear claws

Buried the dead (signs of religious beliefs)

Language-no written language, but skeletal remains show that we had the brain size and and vocal structures to speak. Estimate is 100,000 to 200,000 years ago
Evidence of complex thoughts and attempts to communicate
Green Dots = Modern Humans
Lesson 1:
The First Survivors
Are You Smarter Than A Caveman
Meeting Your Basic Needs with Nature Resources
Lesson 2:
The First Engineers:
Making Sense of the Midden
How and Why Scientists Study Early Humans

Artifacts and Tools

Evidence of Early Humankind

The Homes of Early Man

Paleolithic Environments

Lesson 3
The First Immigrants:
Paleolithic Humans Take Over The World
When and Where Did Early Humans LIve

http://humanorigins.si.edu/human-characteristics/change
1) Identify a new set of coordinates that also represents this continent.
2) Determine the date that humans arrived in this continent. (Use the Humans Change the World Timeline).
3) Draw a line on the map to show the path humans took to get to this continent.
4) Make sure everyone in the group has labeled the continents on their World Map correctly.
5) Work on calculating distance traveled until other groups are done.


Lesson 4
The First Culture:
Paleolithic People Had Swag
Paleolithic Way of Life

The Dawn of Ancient Civilzations
Lesson 6:
The First Farmers: Old McCaveman Had a Farm
The Neolithic Revolution

Lesson 8:
Are you Civilized: How do you know?
The 5 Elemts of Civilizaiton

Lesson 7:
Humans And Nature:
What Doesn't Kill You Makes You Stronger
Human-Environment Interactions

http://humanorigins.si.edu/research/climate-research/effects
Horse with handprints at Pech-Merle

Chauvet

Chauvet

Chauvet
Chauvet

Chauvet - herd of rhinos

Chauvet - Ibex

Chauvet

Chauvet

Reindeer - Lascaux

Lascaux - Shaft of the dead man

Chauvet

Lascaux - Chinese Horses & Bulls

Cueva de las Manos-Argentina, 7,500 years old
Bison from Altamira Caves - Spain

Hand Stencil - Chauvet

Chauvet - bear

Chauvet, horses
Lascaux - horse and harpoons, or plants?

What is represented in these paintings?

Why are there so few images of humans?

How does this artwork reflect life of prehistoric peoples?

What is the significance?
Using bone, sticks, brush made with animal hair, hands/fingers, and sharpened rocks
Paints came from the earth - crushed and mixed with cave water to create color
Dark caverns were lit with torches and prehistoric lamps: made with animal fat, etc etc
In Lascaux, scaffolds and ladders were built to get to the high points.

How did they create the images?
Chauvet Caves

Discovery!

And…there are other places in the world where painted caves exist!
Like Spain, South America, Australia, etc…

Where are the caves? How were they discovered and when?

Paleolithic Picassos?

A Journey in Prehistoric Art of the Lascaux and Chauvet Caves of Southern France, and others…

Why did they paint and carve on the cave walls?
Did they live in the caves also?
What evidence of human life do we see in the caves?
What did the artists paint?
Lived approx. 17,000 to 30,000 years ago during the Stone age and the Ice age

The Artists
How do these cave drawings compare…

…to these animals of today?

Jenna Freck, 2009
How Farming Lead To The Development of Ancient Civilizations

Flocabulary: The Fertile Crescent

http://www.flocabulary.com/fertile-crescent-civilizations/

Look For Signs of Civilization
http://www.slideshare.net/gutzy6/8-features-of-a-civilization
Features of Civilization
6.1 Students describe what is known through archaeological studies of the early
physical and cultural development of humankind from the Paleolithic era to
the agricultural revolution.
1. Describe the hunter-gatherer societies, including the development of tools and the use
of fire.
2. Identify the locations of human communities that populated the major regions of the
world and describe how humans adapted to a variety of environments.
3. Discuss the climatic changes and human modifications of the physical environment
that gave rise to the domestication of plants and animals and new sources of clothing
and shelter.
6.2 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Kush.
• 6.2.1 Locate and describe the major river systems and discuss the physical settings that supported permanent settlement and early civilizations.
• 6.2.2 Trace the development of agricultural techniques that permitted the production of economic surplus and the emergence of cities as centers of culture and power.

Standards
Specialized Workers

What was the effect of surplus of food?
Fewer __________ needed in the fields.
Division of labor (groups of people divide up the jobs)

So, ___________ took on specific roles in society.
Government officials
Priests
Artisans (skilled workers – jewelry, pottery, weapons, tools)
Merchants/Traders


Early humans invented farming and keeping animals.
This lead to people living in _____________ in one ____________. These__________ grew into cities.
This lead to a ____________ of food.

How did this help increase population?

The people of a civilization must be living in a given location – namely, a city.



Cities

What is civilization?

Are you civilized? How do you know?

What about early humans? Were they civilized? Why or Why not?

The Neolithic Revolution changed the way of life for humans.

This new way had characteristics that we have today in civilizations.


The 5 key components of civilization

Cities
Specialized Workers
Advanced Technology
Complex institutions
Record Keeping

Record Keeping

Government
Tax collection
Laws
Grain storage
Irrigation plans
Religion/Priests
Calendar
Yearly rituals (sacrifices!)
Ideas, beliefs, commandments
Education (much later)
Language, math, preparation for specialized labor
Trade/Merchants
Debts and payments
What are the 5 key components
of a civilization?

To be considered a “civilization,” certain characteristics must exist within a group of people

In your groups see if you can identify characteristics of the civilization that you live in.

How did we go from living in caves to living in civilizations?

Advanced Technology

What were some early technologies?
Examples:
Plows
Irrigation
Potter’s wheel
Bronze (alloy of copper and tin)
Bronze Age: lasted while people used bronze as the primary metal to make jewelry, tools, and weapons
What were the effects of farm technology?
How did it lead to other types of technology?
What other effects might technology have?


Advanced Technology

A civilization must have the skills and means to use, modify, and improve resources.

Ancient cities became the center of trade (see specialized workers) for a large area of land

Ancient Cities

Civilization

Western Civilization
Mr. Taylor
Fall 2012

Record Keeping

Civilizations must have a way to keep records.
Why do they need to keep records?
This requires writing down ___________.
What might a civilization keep records of?
Complex Institutions
Civilizations need complex institutions to promote order, safety, and prosperity.

What is an institution?
A significant organization in a society.
Examples:
Government
Religion
Education

What major invention will complex institutions use?
Hint: They still use it today and so do you.


Specialized Workers
People within civilizations have specific ________ within their city.
What effect will specialized workers have on civilization?

What does it take to run a city?

Today people also live in large cities, towns and villages.

Santa Maria is a city with about 100,000 people.

Modern Cities
Cueva de las Manos-Argentina, 7,500 years old
Food: Already had great hunting tools... bow and arrows, spears for fishing, needles, and they had begun to polish their tools. But then....
Tools such as the sickle could help "slash" or clear the land. The plow could cut, lift and turn over the soil getting it ready to plant seeds.
Effects:
People settle down-settlements, no longer nomadic (except pastoral nomads)

Larger groups of people living together

New Technology Changes Farming Methods
(plow, irrigation)

Surplus of Food-lots more food

Population grows
Full transcript