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Copy of Early Humankind (Our Ancestors)
Transcript of Copy of Early Humankind (Our Ancestors)
Surviving In The Wild: Life Before Wal-Mart
Click on: Get a Catalhoyuk Overview (upper left under Ian's picture)
1. Why is it important to study how people lived 9,000 years ago and what can we learn?
2. Why must archeologists make such careful recordings of the data they collect?
3. What types of material evidence do archeologists study?
4. What does the artwork tells us about early man?
9,000 years ago in Turkey
The First Artists:
Coloring on the (CAVE) Walls
Cave Paintings and Storytelling at Lascaux, France
1. Listen to the song and pay attention to the lyrics.
2. Click on the hyperlinks and read the text
3. Review the Challenge Questions
A. Do you know the answers?
B. Can you explain the answers to yourself or a partner?
C. Explain two of the following questions on your exit ticket.
1. What is easier? Picking fruit or hunting? Do you disagree or agree with the answer?
2. What did irrigation allow people to do more easily? Why?
3.As a result of division of labor, why does his aunt get to open the frozen yogurt stand?
D. You will paste this exit ticket into your social studies binder tomorrow.
Main Idea – Prospering agricultural villages, food surpluses and new technologies led to the rise of civilization
Why It Matters? – Agriculture led to larger, more organized communities that led to cities = Ancient Civilizations
Stonehenge in England
Invention of new tools – hoes, sickles and plow – made the task of farming easier
Farming villages grow to become cities
To cultivate more land and produce extra crops irrigation systems were developed
This resulted in food surpluses
Development of a new class of people – craftspeople
Development of Trade
The wheel and sail allowed traders to transport goods over long distances
Villages Grow into Cities
Catal Huyuk – largest early settlement
Located in South Central Turkey
Early village life (6000 people)
Large crops of wheat, barley and peas.
Raised sheep and cattle.
Development of skilled workers (division of labor)
Potters and weavers
Obsidian products such as mirrors, jewelry and knives
What do these ancient civilizations have in common?
Africa – The Nile River Valley – wheat, barley and other crops
China: Huang He River region – a grain called millet.
In the Chang Jiang River delta – wild rice
Middle East- Tigris-Euphrates Rivers-barley, onions, grapes
India-Ghanges and Indus Rivers-wheat
Where: Farming Develops in Many Areas
How: Early Farming Methods-Subsistence
Slash and Burn Farming – Cut trees and grass, then burn to clear land
Remaining ashes fertilized the land
Domestication of Animals –Horses, dogs, goats and pigs
Farmers and pastoral nomads both domesticated animals
Neolithic Revolution cont.
The Neolithic Revolution is the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture.
This transition is also a change from a nomadic lifestyle to a more settled, agrarian-based one.
Agriculture gives humans more control over their food supply and allows them to grow extra food and store it.
Who: Neolithic farmers-historians believe women may have been the very first farmers, the first to domesticate plants and animals.
Neolithic Humans and Hunting Tools
1. ...were vegetarians
2. ...wrote down their thoughts in words
3. ...lived small groups of 20-30 peeps
4. ...got their tools at Wal-mart
5. ... spoke a language that sounded like Chinese.
6. ... built shelters because of the cold.
7. ... first lived in Asia.
8. ... were nomadic and never moved.
9. ... ate fruits and nuts that women gathered.
10. ...painted caves because they were bored.
True, False, or Unknown
HOW DID THEY MAKE TOOLS?
Technology: use of knowledge to make inventions that solve problems and help humans live a better life.
Tools – Needed tools to hunt animals.
Fire-500,000 years ago (could control it)
Built shelters with natural resources
Hunters (Men) and Gatherers (Women)
Nomadic (moved from place to place)
Groups of 20-30 peeps
Built shelters to survive cold
(Ice Age 70,000 to 10,000 years ago)
Paleolithic = “Old Stone Age”
Mary Leaky – Finds footprints in Tanzania
Australopithecines – walked upright
Donald Johanson – Finds female skeleton in Ethiopia (Lucy). Oldest hominid found (3.5 million years old)
Neanderthals (200,000 B.C. to 30,000 B.C.)
Cro-Magnon (40,000 to 8,000 B.C.)
Social Changes: Social classes with varying wealth, power and influence begin to emerge.
Organized Religion: Farmers worshiped gods that were believed to have power over rain, wind and other natural forces
Early city dwellers developed religions based on earlier religions. As populations grew, common spiritual values became lasting religious traditions
Villages Grow into Cities and Cultures Evolve
Main Idea – Development of agriculture spurred an increase in population and the growth of a settled way of life, or human settlements.
Why it Matters? – New methods for obtaining food and the development of technology laid the foundations for modern civilizations.
Humans Try to Control Nature
What: Agricultural Revolution/Neolithic Revolution
(Food gathering to food producing)
When: From 10,000/8,000 B.C.E. to 3000 B.C.E.
Why: Causes of the Neolithic Revolution
Ice Age is Over at about 10,000 B.C.E.
Change in Climate – Rising temperature worldwide = Longer growing seasons and drier lands
Neolithic = “New Stone Age”
THE NEOLITHIC LIFE
Art and Culture
When: Paleolithic Era: 2.5 million years ago -10,000 years ago.
– Find bones and artifacts that provide evidence of early human life
– Date bones, artifacts and fossils
– Study ancient human culture
Cultue: the way of life of a group, how they get things done.
Human Origins in Africa
Prehistory is the time from which no written record exists.
Human Prehistory: Paleolithic and Neolithic Ages.
WHAT IS PREHISTORY?
Prehistory – 2500 B.C.
1. Evidence of Early Man
2. Paleolithic Age
3. Rock and Roll
Middle East India Central America China Southeast Asia
8,000 BCE 7,000 BCE 6,500 BCE 6,000 BCE 5,000 BCE
Agriculture developed independently
in different parts of the world.
When: 8,000 BCE – 5,000 BCE
Later hand axes
Early hand axes
Pebble tools and Choppers
Tools Time Chart
Where: Earliest humans originated in Africa, but
Paleolithic Man lived on all the major continents.
Technology: Farming Tools:
Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
Motivating by the need to eat:
They invented tools such as spears, digging sticks and knives.
Over 100 different tools were made from bone, stone and wood.
Studied animal habits and stalked prey.
Language: Advanced skill in spoken language
Early Homo Sapiens (Wise Men) 200,000
Identical to modern humans
Cave Paintings from charcoal and animal blood- all over
Sculptures of animals and human figures
Needle-like tools for sewing hides together
Necklaces of seashells, lion teeth and bear claws
Buried the dead (signs of religious beliefs)
Language-no written language, but skeletal remains show that we had the brain size and and vocal structures to speak. Estimate is 100,000 to 200,000 years ago
Evidence of complex thoughts and attempts to communicate
Green Dots = Modern Humans
The First Survivors
Are You Smarter Than A Caveman
Meeting Your Basic Needs with Nature Resources
The First Engineers:
Making Sense of the Midden
How and Why Scientists Study Early Humans
Artifacts and Tools
Evidence of Early Humankind
The Homes of Early Man
The First Immigrants:
Paleolithic Humans Take Over The World
When and Where Did Early Humans LIve
1) Identify a new set of coordinates that also represents this continent.
2) Determine the date that humans arrived in this continent. (Use the Humans Change the World Timeline).
3) Draw a line on the map to show the path humans took to get to this continent.
4) Make sure everyone in the group has labeled the continents on their World Map correctly.
5) Work on calculating distance traveled until other groups are done.
The First Culture:
Paleolithic People Had Swag
Paleolithic Way of Life
The Dawn of Ancient Civilzations
The First Farmers: Old McCaveman Had a Farm
The Neolithic Revolution
Are you Civilized: How do you know?
The 5 Elemts of Civilizaiton
Humans And Nature:
What Doesn't Kill You Makes You Stronger
Horse with handprints at Pech-Merle
Chauvet - herd of rhinos
Chauvet - Ibex
Reindeer - Lascaux
Lascaux - Shaft of the dead man
Lascaux - Chinese Horses & Bulls
Cueva de las Manos-Argentina, 7,500 years old
Bison from Altamira Caves - Spain
Hand Stencil - Chauvet
Chauvet - bear
Lascaux - horse and harpoons, or plants?
What is represented in these paintings?
Why are there so few images of humans?
How does this artwork reflect life of prehistoric peoples?
What is the significance?
Using bone, sticks, brush made with animal hair, hands/fingers, and sharpened rocks
Paints came from the earth - crushed and mixed with cave water to create color
Dark caverns were lit with torches and prehistoric lamps: made with animal fat, etc etc
In Lascaux, scaffolds and ladders were built to get to the high points.
How did they create the images?
And…there are other places in the world where painted caves exist!
Like Spain, South America, Australia, etc…
Where are the caves? How were they discovered and when?
A Journey in Prehistoric Art of the Lascaux and Chauvet Caves of Southern France, and others…
Why did they paint and carve on the cave walls?
Did they live in the caves also?
What evidence of human life do we see in the caves?
What did the artists paint?
Lived approx. 17,000 to 30,000 years ago during the Stone age and the Ice age
How do these cave drawings compare…
…to these animals of today?
Jenna Freck, 2009
How Farming Lead To The Development of Ancient Civilizations
Flocabulary: The Fertile Crescent
Look For Signs of Civilization
Features of Civilization
6.1 Students describe what is known through archaeological studies of the early
physical and cultural development of humankind from the Paleolithic era to
the agricultural revolution.
1. Describe the hunter-gatherer societies, including the development of tools and the use
2. Identify the locations of human communities that populated the major regions of the
world and describe how humans adapted to a variety of environments.
3. Discuss the climatic changes and human modifications of the physical environment
that gave rise to the domestication of plants and animals and new sources of clothing
6.2 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Kush.
• 6.2.1 Locate and describe the major river systems and discuss the physical settings that supported permanent settlement and early civilizations.
• 6.2.2 Trace the development of agricultural techniques that permitted the production of economic surplus and the emergence of cities as centers of culture and power.
What was the effect of surplus of food?
Fewer __________ needed in the fields.
Division of labor (groups of people divide up the jobs)
So, ___________ took on specific roles in society.
Artisans (skilled workers – jewelry, pottery, weapons, tools)
Early humans invented farming and keeping animals.
This lead to people living in _____________ in one ____________. These__________ grew into cities.
This lead to a ____________ of food.
How did this help increase population?
The people of a civilization must be living in a given location – namely, a city.
What is civilization?
Are you civilized? How do you know?
What about early humans? Were they civilized? Why or Why not?
The Neolithic Revolution changed the way of life for humans.
This new way had characteristics that we have today in civilizations.
The 5 key components of civilization
Yearly rituals (sacrifices!)
Ideas, beliefs, commandments
Education (much later)
Language, math, preparation for specialized labor
Debts and payments
What are the 5 key components
of a civilization?
To be considered a “civilization,” certain characteristics must exist within a group of people
In your groups see if you can identify characteristics of the civilization that you live in.
How did we go from living in caves to living in civilizations?
What were some early technologies?
Bronze (alloy of copper and tin)
Bronze Age: lasted while people used bronze as the primary metal to make jewelry, tools, and weapons
What were the effects of farm technology?
How did it lead to other types of technology?
What other effects might technology have?
A civilization must have the skills and means to use, modify, and improve resources.
Ancient cities became the center of trade (see specialized workers) for a large area of land
Civilizations must have a way to keep records.
Why do they need to keep records?
This requires writing down ___________.
What might a civilization keep records of?
Civilizations need complex institutions to promote order, safety, and prosperity.
What is an institution?
A significant organization in a society.
What major invention will complex institutions use?
Hint: They still use it today and so do you.
People within civilizations have specific ________ within their city.
What effect will specialized workers have on civilization?
What does it take to run a city?
Today people also live in large cities, towns and villages.
Santa Maria is a city with about 100,000 people.
Cueva de las Manos-Argentina, 7,500 years old
Food: Already had great hunting tools... bow and arrows, spears for fishing, needles, and they had begun to polish their tools. But then....
Tools such as the sickle could help "slash" or clear the land. The plow could cut, lift and turn over the soil getting it ready to plant seeds.
People settle down-settlements, no longer nomadic (except pastoral nomads)
Larger groups of people living together
New Technology Changes Farming Methods
Surplus of Food-lots more food