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Chapter 13A - Plant Classiciation

A brief overview of Chapters 21 and 22 from Mrs. Looney's Biology class.
by

Jackie Looney

on 24 February 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 13A - Plant Classiciation

Only one living species, Ginkgo biloba; tree with small, fan-shaped leaves.
Ginkgophyta
Only one species of Welwitschia; found in the deserts of southwest Africa.
Species identified by characteristics of cones or needlelike/scaly leaves
Cone-bearing trees (pine, fir, cypress, redwood).
Coniferophyta (Conifers)
Ginkgoes are hardy and resistant to insects and to air pollution.
Male and female (unpleasant smell) reproductive structures on separate trees.
Pterophyta (Ferns)
Sphenophyta (Horsetails)
Some used to grow at tall as 30 m.
Have stems, roots, and leaves, and spores encased in cone-like structure
Have become part of the coal that is now used by people for fuel.
Adapted primarily to moist environments.
Lycophyta (Club/Spike Mosses
Thin, green stems.
Psilophyta (Whisk Ferns)
Bryophyta (True Mosses)
Biennials - grow in the first season, but produce flowers and seeds in the second season (example: foxglove)
Annuals - grow, flower, and produce seeds in one growing period (example: marigolds)
There are 12 divisions of plants divided into three groups, based on presence/absence of vascular tissues/seeds
About 35 Ephedra species; grow as shrubby plants in desert/arid regions.
About 30 species of Gnetum; tropical trees and climbing vines.
Three genera with distinct characteristics.
Gnetophyta
Produce male (produce pollen) and female cones (produce sees) on separate trees.
Palmlike trees with scaly trunks and can be short or more than 20 m in height.
About 100 species.
Cycadophyta (Cycads)
Leaves resemble liver
Hepaticophyta (Liverworts)
Alternative Classification
Based on length of time plants grow
Seeds - structure that contains a young embryonic plants and stored food inside a protective seed coat
Vascular tissue - specialized tissues/structures that conduct water/dissolved minerals in a plant
Classification of Plants
One genus is found in the southern U.S.
Two known genera are tropical or subtropical.
Covered in small scales that are flat, rigid, and overlapping.
Vascular plants with no roots and leaves.
Sporophytes resemble horns.
Anthocerophyta (Hornworts)
Plants were created on Day 3 and are highly valued today for their nutritional, economical, and even aesthetic purposes.
Produce flowers where fruits develop.
Flowering plants, are largest, most diverse group of seed plants: ~250,000 species
Anthophyta - Flowering Plants
Cells covering the stems of some contain large deposits of silica.
Have hollow, jointed stems surrounded by whorls of scale-like leaves.
Origin/Purpose of Plants
Dicots include almost all shrubs and trees (except conifers), cacti, wildflowers, garden flowers, vegetables, and herbs.
Clusters of sporangia form sori, usually found on underside of fronds
Sporophyte, not the gametophyte, produces most of the food used by both generations.
Moncots include grasses, orchids, lilies, and palms.
Most conifers have male (
pollen
) and female (
seed
) cones on different branches of the same tree.
Spores produced in sporangia.
Fronds often divided into leaflets (pinnae), and attached to a central rachis.
Leaves (fronds) grow upward from the rhizome.
Found in marshes, in shallow ponds, on stream banks, and other areas with damp soil.
Life cycle similar to mosses
Small plants that usually grow in clumps or masses in moist habitats.
Thrive in moist areas
Mosses have rhizoids which help anchor stem to the soil
Rhizome
Root
Fronds
Main, thick stem (rhizome) is underground.
Distinguishing Characteristics of Monocots and Dicots
Produce spores instead of seeds
Rely on osmosis/diffusion for water transport
Have leafy shoots - most recognizable part; less than 3cm thick and usually one cell thick
13.2 - Vascular, Non-Seed Plants
Sporophyte generation dominant
Gymnosperms
"Naked seeds"
Some are evergreens, and some are deciduous
Angiosperms
Seeds enclosed in fruit
13.3 - Vascular Seed Plants
Sporophyte generation dominant
13.1 - Nonvascular Plants
The study of plants is botany
Perennials - grow year after year (example: tulips
Absorb water and minerals directly from leafy shoot
Gametophyte generation is dominant
Some are epiphytes - grow on but do not parasitize plants
Chapter 13A - Plant Classification
He built the Palace of the Forest of Lebanon a hundred cubits long, fifty wide and thirty high, with four rows of cedar columns supporting trimmed cedar beams. - 1 Kings 7:2
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