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Transcript of Nonverbal Communication
Prof. Elsa García
Nonverbal messages may communicate meaning by themselves and may be used to serve a variety of functions: to discover, establish and maintain relationships, help, persuade, and play.
Nonverbal messages may occur with other messages and metacommunicate (comment on other messages);such messages may accent, complement, contradict, regulate, repeat, or substitute for other messages.
The five categories of body movements are emblems (nonverbal behaviors that directly translate words or phrases), illustrators (nonverbal behaviors that accompany and literally “illustrate” verbal messages), affect displays (nonverbal movements that communicate emotional meaning), regulators (nonverbal movements that coordinate, monitor, maintain, or control the speaking of another individual), and adaptors (nonverbal behaviors that are emitted without conscious awareness and that usually serve some kind of need, as in scratching an itch)
Facial movements may communicate a variety of emotions. The most frequently studied are happiness, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, and contempt. Facial management techniques enable you to control the extent to which you reveal the emotions you feel.
The facial feedback hypothesis claims that facial display of an emotion can lead to physiological and psychological changes.
Eye contact may seek feedback, signal others to speak, indicate the nature of a relationship, or compensate for increased physical distance. Eye avoidance may help you avoid prying or may signal a lack of interest.
Pupil size shows one’s interest and level of emotional arousal. Pupils enlarge when one is interested in something or is emotionally aroused in a positive way.
Proxemics is the study of the communicative functions of space and spatial relationships. Four major proxemic distances are
(1) intimate distance, ranging from actual touching to 18 inches;
(2) personal distance, ranging from 18 inches to 4 feet;
(3) social distance, ranging from 4 to 12 feet;and
(4) public distance, ranging from 12 to more than 25 feet.
Your treatment of space is influenced by such factors as status, culture, context, subject matter, gender, age, and positive or negative evaluation of the other person.
Territoriality has to do with your possessive reaction to an area of space or to particular objects.
Artifactual communication consists of messages that are human-made;for example, communication through color, clothing and body adornment, and space decoration.
The study of haptics indicates that touch communication may convey a variety of meanings, the most important being positive affect, playfulness, control, ritual, and task-relatedness. Touch avoidance is the desire to avoid touching and being touched by others.
Paralanguage involves the vocal but nonverbal dimensions of speech. It includes rate, pitch, volume, rhythm, and vocal quality as well as pauses and hesitations. Paralanguage helps us make judgments about people, their emotions, and their believability.
We use silence to communicate a variety of meanings, from messages aimed at hurting another (the silent treatment) to deep emotional responses.
The study of time communication (chronemics) explores the messages communicated by our treatment of time.
Smell can communicate messages of attraction, taste, memory, and identification.
Cultural variations in nonverbal communication are great. Different cultures, for example, assign different meanings to facial expressions and colors, have different spatial rules, and treat time very differently