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Transcript of Congo
Dr. Livingstone? King Leopold II Treaties Expeditions Berlin Conference 1884 Self-benefit Expansion Rubber 1878 Social Darwinism "Our only program, I am anxious to repeat, is the work of moral and material regeneration, and we must do this among a population whose degeneration in its inherited conditions it is difficult to measure. The many horrors and atrocities which disgrace humanity give way little by little before our intervention." - King Leopold II of Belgium 1 2 4 5 Nicolas Pira Laura Becerra Pictures 1. http://comprenderelayer.files.wordpress.com/2008/01/007-livingstone-portrait.jpg?w=217&h=298
9. http://www.mercadoytransparencia.org/sites/default/files/Thums_up-down_0.png Quote 1. http://www.moreorless.au.com/killers/leopold.html#backg 1 History http://congo.edublogs.org/imperialism-congo-region/
http://historywithmrgreen.com/page4/assets/congo.ppt Imperialism in Congo. Word doc.
Retrieved March 20, 2013 http://bit.ly/XlbJLr 3 Congo
State " In the country, liberals and Catholics were fighting over how to set up a new education system. At the same time, internationally, Belgium began to consider the rising powers of France and Germany a threat and soon regarded both as enemies.These two factors did not put Belgium in any position to colonize in Africa. However, the king of Belgium, Leopold II, had other ideas about colonization; he wanted his own colony in Africa... Over the years Leopold II used all of the resources his new colony had to offer to benefit him and not his country." - Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/site/congoimperialism/the-state-of-belgium https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cg.html#top
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/351310/Patrice-Lumumba The new Belgian Congo:
Better living and working conditions.
Roads, schools, hospitals.
Many restrictions. '50s to 1960
Political power for Congolese.
Roundtable conference. June 30, 1960 University of Lovanium Established in 1954 6 8 "The country’s first university had been created by the Belgians only six years before. (independence)" - Readings in Global History, Volume 2. "Africa: Imperialism and the Present" "The DRC has the world’s largest reserves of cobalt and significant quantities of the world’s diamonds, gold and copper." - Retrieved from http://www.newsaboutcongo.com/2009/03/congo-with-24-trillion-in-mineral-wealth-but-still-poor.html Catholicism-Protestantism 70% Religious beliefs: Official Language:
French - Retrieved from CIA The World Factbook 7 http://www.md.ucl.ac.be/histoire/site-lovanium.jpg "The condition of things in the Congo is atrocious, as shown by the photographs of children whose hands have been cut off." - Mark Twain Improvements Benefits Rebellions & revolts Self-benefit Rubber King Leopold rule over the Congo from 1884-1908.
Leopold self-economic benefit from Congo lands. Bibliography http://uk.groups.yahoo.com/group/Idaman_Group/message/48789
http://ultimatehistoryproject.com/belgian-congo.html Patrice Lumumba -Economy: increased palm and cotton production. -Culture: Education systems, health care,preserved indigenous languages. Positive -Culture: discrimination,segregation from whites, forced religion. -Social Structures: Leopold’s brutal treatment killed Congolese pop 10-50%. -Political: no political structure,wars, and inner division. -Economy: profits to Europe,hunger, 70% people lost jobs. Negative African Nations experienced political violence and economic mismanagement.
Labor slavery for rubber extraction. Exported, great success.
Forced labor, terrible working conditions.
Long hours of work with no breaks.
Harsh punishments if not efficient enough.
Used methods of violence and mutilation to increase work.
Body mutilation/suffering in front of family members.
Exposed to harsh geographical/climate conditions. Belgium vegetable oil production (2500-9000 tons) 13 years. Population of Congolese reduced from 30m to 15m Over exploded rubber. Belgium complete control over minerals in Congo Forced labor caused starvation. Forced ideas and repression.
Restriction of movement in their own town.
Little to no freedom or rights compared to whites. Brutally treated. Poor working conditions. 30 million Congolese died. Slavery, mutilation, human exploitation Excessive use of violence, suffering. 9 9 Resistance to Imperialism The first complains came around the 1930s, and went on until the end of world war 2, ending in no change in government. This strike included many problems in the economy.
The struggle towards independence started in 1945, when many territories that were once colonies, now emerged as new nations, with UN putting pressure on Belgium for the release of its colonies.
Riots were common in the territory, and so the Belgian parliament promised new laws and changes Resistance to Imperialism After some time, Congolese officials grew tired of waiting for better conditions from Belgium and started getting the work done from themselves.
After forming at last a political party, Patrice Lumumba started running small parts of the government, until a riot formed in Leopoldville, and after much consideration the Belgian parliament decided to start arranging an independence agreement with the Congo.
Finally, after much negotiation, the independance from Belgium was achieved on June 30 1960 How did the Belgium forces coming into Congo affect the SPICE? 1890-1908 Belgian forces take control over many areas of the Congo Basin , forcing control of trade.
Congolese are forced to force labor and harvest of rubber and ivory, build transportation and infrastructure.
June 30, 1960 Patrice Lumbumba wins first national election. Later killed
20,000 forces of the UN peacekeepers are sent to Congo after country ask for resistance against Belgian troops. Political problems.
After Independence from Belgium, population growth
Belgium Independence (1960)control government, education, and resources.
Unstable infrastructure, gov, rulling ect when Belgium left, they didn't know how to control over their own country as Belgium had done it for them