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House Wall Cross Section
Transcript of House Wall Cross Section
The back fill
must be at a minimum pitch of 1:12 away from house to direct the water flow away from the basement to prevent puddling water and flooding. Back fill is the dirt that was dug for the foundation and pushed and packed back against it once construction is over.
is either made of foundation concrete and poured into a form or made from cinder blocks. It is 8" wide and 8' tall. The Foundation supports the whole house and keeps it from shifting due to freezing during the winter.
is typically made from aluminum. The down spout allows the water collected in the eavestrough to be sent down to the ground and away from the house in a contained and controlled manor.
home wrap is a thin plastic layer on the outside of the sheathing that protects the frame, other woodwork, and metal used in the structural fastening of the house from moisture damage. House wrap is held in place using nails with a plastic washer to prevent it from ripping off.
/ Brick/ stone/ Board and batten/ aluminum/ ext.. are all possible options to cover the exterior of a building. It is what makes a building look nice and presentable. This is plastic, 8" siding. Siding is designed to clip together so as to not see any of the screws used to hold it on and to ensure it all stays on together.
is 0.75" Aspenite plywood (bought in 4'X8' sheets to land on 16" center studs) made from chipped wood and glue. It sits on the frame and seals the inside of the house from the outside. it adds support to hold the Tyvek, shingles, siding ext... in place. It is roughly installed using nails.
are made from tar. Other forms of shingles include aluminum roofing, cedar shakes, clay, or slate. they come in various color, shapes, sizes and designs. Tar shingles are typically 36-40" long and 12-18" wide. When installed the overlap so only 5-7" are exposed. They are nailed down under the overlap 3-5 times using roofing nails to the exterior sheathing.
is a 4" layer of concrete that sits on 2" of sand, plastic sheeting, and 4" of 3/4" clear gravel. This layer is what separates the earth underneath from the inside of the house. Tile, wood floor, carpet, ext... can be put on the slab as flooring but each has different needs to do so.
are 2"x4" (1.5"x3.5"). The studs
(boards) are placed 16" or 24" on center with framing nails.
of the lower wall is a 2"x4". It is attached to the to of the studs using framing nails. It, along with the bottom plate hold the studs in place. The lower walls are hung with 3.5" framing nails to the main floor joists.
1' of 3/4" clear
is beside the footing for quick drainage to allow water to flow easily into the weeping tile and not into the house.
in the lower wall consists of 1" of fiberglass insulation between the wall and the foundation wall, 3.5" Batt insulation between the studs, 1/4" foam paneling, and 6-mil polyethylene vapor barrier.
is put on the walls and ceiling of the basement. This is screwed with drywall screws to the wall studs and the ceiling joists. These are bought in 4'x8' sheets. Other paneling also possible.
of the upper load bearing wall (outer wall studs) are 2"x6" (1.5"x5.5"). The studs are placed every 16" or 24" on center with framing nails to the top and bottom plates. They hold the main weight of the rest of the house.
are 2"x12" (1.5"x11.25") and nailed to the rim joist every 16" on center and stand vertical. They sit on the sill plate on the foundation wall.
is 0.5" Aspenite plywood that is nailed to the joists and sits under the outer wall and under the floor boards.
is what is done to ix gaps and dents between sheets, corners and edges to make a clean, continuous, flat surface. This is done with wall tape to cover the large cracks and define corners, then drywall mud is spread over top and sanded.
come in various types and sizes. These can include oak, cherry, walnut, maple, ask, birch, ext... and sizes between 3" to 8" wide board. They are 3/4" thick and can have a tongue and groove interlocking system. Underneath, they can have grooves cut to allow for the boards to shrink and expand and cup down.
Roof frames can be ordered and bought as
. (pre-made roof frames) They are made of 2"x4" (1.5"x3.5"). They are nailed on 16" or 24" center to the double top plate. They support the roof load. They are nailed together using nail sheets. These rafters are at a pitch of 9/12. Rafter pitches can be any pitch ( #/12). The overhang of these rafters are 24" and are a straight overhang.
in the attic is 11" R-40. It can be Batt or blow-in/spray insulation. This keeps the heat in, in the winter and the heat out, in the summer.
is a 4" pipe that runs along the bottom edge of the foundation and absorbs water and directs it either into the sump pump, or down hill away from the house. The Weeping tile sits in gravel.
is a 1/2" steel rod that connects the footing to the foundation wall and the wall to the sill plate. It prevents separation or shifting of the components.
is what everything rests on. It is made of footing concrete and sits beneath the foundation wall. The footing is always twice as wide as it is tall (2W=T). The Foundation wall is centered on it.
is a thin plastic bubble wrap material that is screwed to the outside of the foundation wall. It is a waterproofing as well as a vapor barrier for the foundation.
are what makes the transition from the foundation to the frame. The Sill plate is what is tied to both the foundation and nailed to the floor joists. The gasket is what keeps the plate level, straight, and fills the gaps between the connection. It is a sort of plastic insulation strip.
is an aluminum tray that runs around a house collecting the run off water from the shingles.
is a bent piece of aluminum that guides water that wants to run under the last shingle into the eavestrough.
is an aluminum panel that is behind the eavestrough and against the fascia board. it covers the fascia board and cups under it, holding the soffit in place.
is an aluminum panel that hangs from the edge of the house and the fascia board. It comes in sections that clip together. It covers the gap of the overhang (24") and provides venting out of the attic.
is what all the aluminum components are tied to. It is nailed to the Rafters and hangs 2" below it.
is a thin plastic film that is stretched and stapled to the inside face of the exterior wall studs. This disallows water moisture and temperature contrasts to effect the structure and contents on the inside of the building.
is hung 1" away from the foundation wall so that it can hang plumb. The foundation wall may not always be perfectly straight and flat. It is also hung 1" away from the floor to prevent it from the possibility of coming in contact with water and allowing water to flow undisturbed to the drain.
is a thin paper made of tar (like the shingles) bought in rolls. It is sometimes used under the shingles as another layer of protection from the elements. It also acts as an adhesive to further attach the shingles in place to the roof.
The Sheathing and siding
beyond the top of the foundation wall to block the gap from water splashing in.