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Abby Lewis

on 19 July 2013

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Transcript of BOSS

Michaela Kramer
Kelley Stidham
Abby Lewis

Behavior Observations of Students in Schools (BOSS)
What is the BOSS?
Coding Academic Engagement
Peer Comparison
Behavior observations are more meaningful when comparing target student to peers.
1. Systematic direct observation definition
2. Guidelines for direct observation
3. Coding Academic Engagement
4. Coding Nonengagement
5. Peer comparison and teacher-directed
6. Practice administering BOSS
7. Scoring
8. Interpretation
Behavior Observation of Students in Schools

Systematic direct observation- form of quantitative data collection
Requires BOSS coding sheet and a timing device
Used across settings in the classroom
Requires at least 10-15 minutes for accurate observations, but 20-30 minutes is optimal
Should be repeated over 2-3 days
Behavior is observed in 15 second intervals
Reasons for Conducting Systematic Direct Observations:
1. To confirm or disconfirm subjective reports
2. To determine the exact severity of reported problem
3. To provide a baseline for the intervention
4. To provide feedback

Behaviors must be observable and measurable.
Active Engaged Time (AET)
Definition: Any time the student is actively attending to the assigned work.
Reading aloud
Raising a hand
Talking to the teacher about the assigned material
Talking to a peer about the assigned material
Looking up a word in a dictionary
Should not be scored:
Talking about nonacademic material
Walking to worksheet bin
Calling out (unless appropriate)
Aimlessly flipping pages of a book
Any other form of off-task behavior
Passive Engaged Time (PET)
Definition: Any time the student is passively attending to assigned work.
Listening to a lecture
Looking at an academic worksheet
Reading assigned material silently
Looking at board during instruction
Listening to a peer respond to a question
Should not be scored:
Aimlessly looking around the room
Silently reading unassigned material
Any other form of off-task behavior
Coding Nonengagement
At the beginning of each interval observer determines if student is on-task.
If observer determines student is off-task during the interval, a mark is made in the appropriate box.

•Do not score multiple occurrences of the same type of off-task behavior
Off-Task Motor (OFT-M)
Definition: Any instance of motor activity not directly associated with assigned academic task.
Engaging in any out of seat behavior
Aimlessly flipping the pages of a book
Manipulating objects
Physically touching another student
Bending or reaching
Drawing or writing
Fidgeting in seat
Should not be scored:
Passing paper to a student, as instructed by teacher
Coloring on assigned worksheet
Laughing at joke told by another student
Swinging feet while working on assigned material
Off-Task Verbal (OFT-V)
Definition: Any audible verbalizations that are not permitted and/or not related to assigned academic task.
Making any audible sound
Talking to another student about unrelated issues or the assignment when not permitted
Making unauthorized comments or remarks
Calling out answers when not permitted
Should not be scored:
Laughing at a joke told by teacher
Talking while working in cooperative learning group
Calling out answers when permitted
Off-Task Passive (OFT-P)
Definition: Any time a student is passively not attending to assigned academic activity for at least 3 consecutive seconds.
Sitting quietly in unassigned activity
Looking around the room
Staring out the window
Passively listening to other students talk about unrelated issues
Should not be scored:
Quietly reading assigned book
Passively listening while working in cooperative learning group
Special Rule: To be scored, student must be passively off-task for 3 consecutive seconds within an interval.
How do I score the BOSS?
Teacher-directed Instruction (TDI)
At every 5th interval (shaded on form), observation is conducted on a randomly selected peer
The same coding definitions apply to peer
At every 5th interval, observation is conducted on teacher
The purpose is to provide a sampling of time in which the teacher is actively engaged in direct instruction.
Instructing the whole class or group
Demonstrating academic material at the board
Individually assisting student with assigned task
Should not be scored:
Scolding class or individual student
Giving instructions for academic activity
Sitting at desk grading papers
Speaking to student or class about nonacademic issues
Step 1: Add number of times each behavior occurred for target student only, across the rows into column "S".

Step 2: Add up intervals each behavior is observed for target student across entire observation and record.

Step 3: Add up total intervals observed.

Step 4: (# of occurrences for each behavior / total intervals observed) X 100 - to get a percentage

Step 5: Repeat process for peer comparison data

Step 6: Repeat process for TDI data
1. Observer can establish amount of student's on- and off-task behavior.

2. Observations across multiple settings allow the observer to determine student's engagement in different instructional environments.

3. Differences between AET and PET determine whether opportunities to respond provide clear evidence for academic progress.

4. Observer can compare student against peers.
Shapiro, E.S. (2011) Academic Skills Problems
(4th edition). New Tork: The Guilford
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