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Transcript of Victorians
Many of the things we take for granted today, such as photography, telephones, electric light bulbs and cars were invented during Queen Victoria's reign. How did children
live in Victorian times? FUN FACTS Many children just got 25 shillings (5p) a week or less If a Victorian child had bumps on his head and a pointed chin, people said he or she would probably grow up to be thief!
. Can you guess the jobs? Many children started work at the age of 5, the same age as children start school today. They went to work as soon as they were big enough. Even a tiny child could feed chickens. Older brothers and sisters took small children to work, perhaps to a factory at the end of the street. Other children worked at home, doing jobs such as washing, sewing, sticking labels on bottles or making brushes. What jobs do you think poor children had? Children worked on farms, in homes as servants, and in factories.
Children often did jobs that required small size and nimble fingers. But they also pushed heavy coal trucks along tunnels in coal mines.
Boys went to sea, as boy-sailors, and girls went 'into service' as housemaids.
Children worked on city streets, selling things such as flowers, matches and ribbons.
Crossing boys swept the roads clean of horse-dung and rubbish left by the horses that pulled carts and carriages.
Fun Facts Daily rountines Tell your talking partner
what you do on a saturday or sunday. Victorian schools Victorian classrooms Tell your partner 3 differences
between victorian schools
and todays schools Children sat in rows and the teacher sat at a desk facing the class. At the start of the Victorian age, most teachers were men, but later many women trained as teachers.
Children wrote on slates with chalk. They wiped the slate clean, by spitting on it and rubbing with their coat sleeve or their finger! Slates could be used over and over. For writing on paper, children used a pen with a metal nib, dipped into an ink well. Which would you prefer to use? Daily lessons Children were often taught by copying and repeating what the teacher told them. Repeat after me: 8 x 8 = 64
Girls and boys learned together in primary schools, but were separated in secondary schools.
Boys one side - girls the other side.
You will all learn reading, writing, arithmetic, spelling and drill (PE).
Girls you are going to be taught all about cooking and sewing, to prepare you for housework and motherhood.
Boys you are going to learn about technology: woodwork, maths and technical drawing, to help you work in factories, workshops or the army when you grow up. Punishments Would you have wanted
to go to a victorian school? There could be as many as 70 or 80 pupils in one class, especially in cities.
The teachers were very strict. Children were beaten for even minor wrongdoings, with a cane, on the hand or bottom. A teacher could also punish a child by making them stand in the corner wearing a 'dunce's cap'. Another, very boring, punishment was writing 'lines'. Toys and games Children from
working class families:
. Clothes Close your eyes We worked all day long, and a long day it was too. And it always seemed
a shame to me that we worked in daytime. I mean, we got up in the dark,
except for summer, and worked in the dark in the cave while it was
daylight outside. Then when we had finished work we went home in …
Yes, you've guessed it … the dark! But I suppose if we had worked in
the night then we would have gone home to sleep in the daytime and we
still would not have seen the sunlight! Would you have liked to have being a poor
child in victorian times? What age do you
think children went
to work? Equipment How does that make you feel? Whats would happen if you broke a school rule? Do you think all children
could go to school? •had few luxuries.
•ate poor food
•worked long hours
•lived in damp, filthy
•Many children died of
disease. •usually well fed, clean and well clothed.
•didn't need to work
•went on holidays
•had expensive toys
•had pets such as ponies What children do you think went to schools like these? FUN FACTS Children were scared of getting sick, and scared too of some of the 'cures'. For whooping cough, one cure was to swallow a spider in butter!
. FUN FACTS Child miners started work very early. They often got before sunrise to walk to the mine.
. FUN FACTS All Victorian rocking horses were grey with dappled markings. The horse's mane and tail were made from real horsehair.
. FUN FACTS Rich children enjoyed rides in small carts pulled by goats or ponies.
. FUN FACTS Children were scared of getting sick, and scared too of some of the 'cures'. For whooping cough, one cure was to swallow a spider in butter!
English: EN1: 2a, 2b, 2c, 3a, 3e, 4c
History: 2a, 4a,11a NC:
English: EN1: 2a, 2b, 2c, 3a, 3e, 4a, 4c
EN2: 9a, EN3: 9a
History: 2a, 4a,11a NC:
English: EN1: 2a, 2b, 2c, 3a, 3e, 4a, 4c
English: EN1: 2a, 2b, 2c,
History:11a The Industrial revolution This was made up of technological, scientific and industrial innovations (e.g. mass production, steam engines, railways, sewing machines, gas and electric light, the telegraph, cars)
It led to an enormous expansion of production, particularly through the factory system.
There were huge social costs: the dehumanisation of work, child labour, pollution, and the growth of cities where poverty, filth and disease flourished.
Child labour and poverty were also a feature of rural life, where farm work involved long hours, very low pay and exposure to all weathers.
Children of the revolution In textile mills children were made to clean machines while the machines were kept running, and there were many accidents.
In match factories children were employed to dip matches into a dangerous chemical called phosphorous.
The Factory Act of 1878 banned employment of children under ten years of age, but poor families needed the extra money so many children still skipped school.
Other jobs included working down coal mines. Coal was the main source of power in Victorian times. It was used for cooking and heating, and for driving machinery, trains and steam ships.
Until the 1840s, children as young as five worked down mines for up to 12 hours a day. Victorian Inventions Victorian invention timeline...
http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/Homework/victorians/inventiotimeline.html Lord Armstrong Lord Armstrong transformed an area of hill and moor between 1863 and 1900 into his dream landscape - this is what we now call Cragside, which is owned by The National Trust. Cragside has been called the 'palace of a modern magician' due to how advanced the house there was during Lord Armstrongs day. The palace of a modern magician Cragside was way ahead of its time. It had electric lights, telephones, central heating, hot taps and a lift. Do you think all Victorian homes were like this?
Do you have all of these things in your house? William George Armstrong was born in 1810 in Shieldfield, Newcastle, the son of a corn merchant. Although he initially planned to become a lawyer he was long interested in engineering and in the 1840s made a number of inventions including an hydraulic crane. In 1847 Armstrong set up a works at Elswick in Newcastle, which made electrical mechanisms and engines. One of his more important inventions was the Armstrong breech-loading gun was one of his more successful developments. He was made engineer to the war department and given a knighthood. In 1882 his company started building ships. By which time it was the biggest employer on Tyneside, with over 20,000 employees. In 1897 the firm joined with Joseph Whitworth and later became Vickers Armstrong. He used his great wealth to buy and restore Bamburgh Castle and to build Cragside, his mansion near Rothbury. It was the first house in Britain to be lit by hydroelectric power. Art and Architecture
in the Victorian era Educational Visit - Cragside
The Palace of the Modern Magician Workshop
Armstrong invented the Hydraulic Crane but what were the other great Victorian creations? On our visit to Cragside we will see some of the major 19th century inventions that changed modern life and their contemporary counterparts displayed in Cragside House. These include an original penny farthing, the first ever Kodak camera and Morse Key and Telegraph machine. Now that we've seen the amazing house at Cragside, discuss with a partner what you would invent if you were a 'modern magician?'
Design your own Palace of a Modern Magician thinking about all the gadgets and designs you would create in your perfect house. Like lots of Victorian houses,
Cragside is full of works of art,
from oil paintings and
watercolours to prints and
Many of the pictures
were collected in the 19th
century byWilliam George
Armstrong, 1st Lord
Armstrong, for whom
Cragside was built.
Others were added to the collection by
his heirs in the 20th century. Lord Armstrong was fascinated by water, incorporating 5 lakes, 2 reservoirs and underground plumbing into his estate at Cragside. In 1868, a hydraulic engine was installed, with water being used to power labour-saving machines such as laundry equipment, a rotisserie and a hydraulic lift. In 1870, water from one of the estate's lakes was used to drive a Siemens dynamo in what was the world's first hydroelectric power station. The resultant electricity was used to power an arc lamp installed in the Gallery in 1878. The arc lamp was replaced in 1880 by Joseph Swan's incandescent lamps in what Swan considered 'the first proper installation' of electric lighting. Victorian architecture tended to be solid,
practical and ornate.
Victorian architects designed wonderful railway stations, dramatic buildrings, and
museums, using brick and new building materials - iron, steel, and glass - which were all new manufacturing techniques. After looking around
Cragside's art and architecture
key questions that could be considered:
How do you feel when looking at a specific painting?
who is the painting of?
what can you see in the painting?
describe the painting in three words Who was Queen Victoria? Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1837-1901) and empress of India (1876-1901). Her reign was the longest of any monarch in British history and came to be known as the Victorian era.
Architects wanted to find a building style which reflected Victorian commercial and industrial achievements. They chose Gothic a heavy ornate style that had been used in the Middle Ages, but which they refined into a purer more classical look. For the Victorian middle class, Gothic represented a solid Christian approach to building that matched their own values.
Paintings in the Victorian era reflected the themes of the age. Victorian artists painted sentimentalized images of the family complete with children and animals, produced marvellously detailed and realistic scenes of daily life, or looked to the past for inspiration.
The Victorians built public art galleries. These galleries allowed people of all classes to enjoy works of art.
In 1848, artists Millais, Hunt, Rossetti, Ruskin and others formed the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Their distinctive paintings illustrated poetry, moral, religious, and medieval themes. They were full of nature, light, and very romantic.
Millais that was sold from Cragside Queen Victoria came to the throne when she was only 18 years of age on June 20, 1837. Her coronation was a year later on 28 June 1838.
At the age of 21, Victoria married her cousin, Albert of Saxe-Coburg Gotha, a German Prince. They married on the 10th February 1840 at the Chapel Royal in St. James's Palace.
Victoria had nine children, 40 grand-children and 37 great-grandchildren, scattered all over Europe. Most of Queen Victoria's children married into other royal families of Europe.
In 1861, William Morris founded a design firm
using traditional techniques and hand crafting which produced wallpaper, furniture, silverware, and fabrics with a simple design. The style was known as arts and crafts. What else can you find out about Queen Victoria? Use these websites to help you:
What books in the classroom could you use?
http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p008ch7x Your task is to create a wallpaper and carpet design for a room in Cragside that has just been discovered.
You need to use the types of colour and pattern that you have seen throughout the house so that the room does not stand out from the others.
You could use different natural materials to create your design or you could use oil or water colour paint.
Using the information about Cragside that you have found out on your visit write a short descriptive story about what you saw in the room for example you could include an invented modern magician machine or an undiscovered invention. Can you see examples of Victorian architecture
Using your sketch book, guide book and map,
make a rough sketch of some Gothic architecture. Think about the story of Oliver Twist...
Oliver is living in the workhouse, what do you know about living in a workhouse? What can you find out from Oliver's diary?
Write a report to Mr Bumble about the conditions and the recommendations you would suggest for improvement.
Think about where the boys sleep and work, the clothes they wear, what food they eat. What improvements need to be made to make the boys' lives better?
We have read about when Oliver meets Fagin and the boys and he moves into the house with them. Fagin has gone off to meet Bill Sykes. Can you be Charles Dickens and write a new chapter? What happens at the house when Fagin is out? Extended Writing Where was the Crimean War? Take a look at these maps. Britain and it's allies fought the Crimean War against the Russian Empire. It was here that Florence Nightingale and Mary Seacome treated the wounded soldiers.
Can you find where the war was fought on each map?
The third map is different to the first two, what do you notice about it? Why do you think it is drawn this way?
What could that tell you? Music Elgar, Grainger, Strauss, German,
Music Hall, Trad.
Ceilidh dances vs. waltz The Great Exhibition of 1851