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Copy of The Romantic Period

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Shari Cathcart

on 7 May 2014

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Transcript of Copy of The Romantic Period

Inventions
Hector Berlioz's Les Troyens was a popular Grand Opera at the time
Charles-Francois Gounod defined the sub-genre with the opera Faust
The greatest contributor to Gesamtkunstwerk was Richard Wagner. He was considered groundbreaking.
The Romantic Period
1820-1900
By: Izzy Snowden
HISTORICAL CONTEXT
-Telegraph (Samuel Morse, 1832)
-Analytical Engine (Charles Babbage, 1837)
-Telephone (Alexander Gram Bell, 1876)
-Lightbulb (Thomas Edison, 1879)
-Internal Combustion Automobile (Karl Beuz, 1885)
-Wireless radio (Guglielmo Marconi, 1895)
Discoveries and Theories
-First study of electromagnetism (Hans Christian Orsted, 1820)
-Nitrous Oxide first used as an anesthetic for surgery (Dr. Horace Wells, 1846)
-Theory of evolution developed (Charles Darwin, 1859)
-Germ Theory (Louis Pasteur, 1881)
-Radium (Pierre and Marrie Curie, 1898)
Literature and Art
-Showed appreciation of nature's beauty
-Obsession with heroic ideal
-Lots of folk culture involved
-Time of emotion over reason
-In Europe, writers of the time included;William Blake, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Victor Hugo, William Wordsworth
-In America they had more romantic Gothic literature. Including works by James Fenimore Cooper, Herman Melville, Edgar Allen Poe. Later in the century they had Mark Twain.
Nationalism
-Is a deep love and pride of one's country
-Ran rampant through Europe in the 19th century
-Was a central theme in art and political philosophy
-Created resistance to foreign occupation
-Gave art, literature and music strong folk culture influences
-Nationalistic feelings spurred imperialism
-It led to several wars
Politics
-Crimean War (1854-1856) England, France, Russia vs. Ottoman Empire
-Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) Second French Empire vs. Kingdom of Prussia and the North German Confederation
-American Civil War (1861-1865) South states vs. North states over legality of slavery. South was pro, North was against.
Mindset of the Time
-Everything was emotional, everything was dramatic and everything was extreme
MUSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Musical Trends
Because of nationalism there was no one set style of the Romantic Period. But there are some common themes.
-They broke the formal guidelines on the Classical Era (rules about length, number of movements, instrument and voice type restrictions)
-Very wide dynamic range
-Great variety of instruments
-Longer, more lyrical, dramatic and emotional melodies
-Extreme tempos
-Fuller harmonies that employ dissonance
-Chromatic themes in harmonies and melodies
-Greater technical skill, especially by pianists and violinists
-Violins and pianos became very popular
-Great use of native and folk melodies
-Frequent key changes
-Orchestras had more people in them then before
Common Ideas
-inspiration came from non-musical sources; like literature, art and politics
-emphasis on emotion and heroic ideals
-very melodramatic and emotional
-characterized by a personal expression of emotion and imagination.
-greatly influenced by nationalism, and therefore the folk culture of their region
MUSICAL GENRES
Lieder
-Created in the Romantic period
-Vocal music
-The simplest of Romantic era genres
-German word for 'song'; singular form is lied
-Based on 18th and 19th century poetry
-Attempts to portray the imagery and mood of the text
-Usually consist of single vocal line with piano accompaniment
Hugo Wolf was an accomplished lied writer, his Goethe-Lieder (1890), made to writings by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe is an excellent example of both a lieder and the Romantic era.
Operetta
-Means 'little opera'
-light entertainment
-frequently dismissed as predictable, they were extremely popular anyway
-usually a play, generally a comedy
-has overture, songs, entr'acte, dances
Sir W.S. Gilbert and Sir Arthur Sullivan were prominent contributors, with 14 operettas made.
Franz Liszt was the most well known composer of symphonic poems, having written 13 of them, including Prometheus and Les Preludes
Programme Music
and
Symphonic Poem
-Programme Music is instrumental music accompanied by extramusical visuals or narrative text
-Symphonic Poem is a popular sub-genre of Programme Music
-A single movement on a symphonic scale
-Uses an orchestra
-Both were developed in the Romantic era
Opera
Operas are like musicals where the focus is the music, not the plot. Opera had always been a beloved form of entertainment but during the 19th century opera was even more popular than it was previously. France, Italy and Germany all had their own distinct styles.
France
Had two different, contrasting forms of opera.
'Grand Opera' is a form of opera that wasn't any longer than classical era operas, however it was much more extravagant. It had more musicians, artists, technicians and stagehands than before.
Drame Lyrique was the second kind of French opera. It was longer than the classic opera and was more lyrical and sentimental.
Italy
Bel Canto (translated to 'beautiful singing') featured complex melodic lines (that singers could expand on at will) and simple harmonic structure. Later, another Italian expanded the form with greater intensity of the emotions, realism and more rhythmic variety.
Gioachino Rossini created the style, Giuseppe Verdi expanded on it with Rigoletto and La Traviata
Germany
A new form of opera popularized in Germany combined themes from greek tragedies with elements of Beethoven's symphonies into a form known as Gesamtkunstwerk (translates to "complete artwork").
Franz Liszt
Birth: October 22, 1811
Location: Doborjan, Sopron Country, Kingdom of Hungary
Death: July 31, 1886
Location: Bayreuth, Germany
Nationality: Hungarian
Name
German: Franz Liszt
Hungarian: Liszt Ferencz
1859-1867 officially: Franz Ritter von Liszt
Born to Anna and Adam Liszt. His father worked for Prince Nikolaus ii Esterhazy. His father was a musician and started teaching Liszt piano at age 7, Liszt was making basic compositions by the age of 8. After a concert when he was nine wealthy sponsors offered to pay for his musical education. in 1824 his first published composition went to print. In 1827 his father dies and he moved to stay with his mother in Paris. His career really took off with his composition Harmonies Poetiques et Reliaieuses. He was very successful and lived a relatively happy life, until he fell down the stairs at a hotel in 1881. He was immobilized for eight weeks and never really recovered. He became extremely depressed and obsessed with death. He contracted many diseases before finally dying of pneumonia in 1886.
Harmonies poétiques et religieuses III, S.173
Is a series of piano pieces Liszt wrote. The section I'm going to show you is called 'Invocation'. It's the first of the series.
The song is very emotional, like all Romantic pieces. It also features the use of chromatic themes and extreme dynamics.
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