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Solids, Liquids and Gases

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Pamela Green

on 12 November 2018

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Transcript of Solids, Liquids and Gases

Solids, Liquids
& Gases

States of Matter
Kinetic Theory
Thermal Energy
Motion of Particles
an explanation of how particles in matter behave
total amount of energy in matter
all based on how much Kinetic energy the particles have
All matter is made of atoms
All atoms are in constant motion
Includes kinetic (moving) and potential
As temp lowers, thermal energy goes
down and particles slow down
As temp rises, thermal energy rises and particles speed up
As you add kinetic energy
the particles move faster and
get further apart
Vocabulary Stuff
- when a solid becomes a gas without passing through the liquid phase
melting point
- temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid
freezing point
- temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid
boiling point
- temperature at which a liquid becomes a gas
condensation point
- temperature at which a gas becomes a liquid
heat of vaporization
- amount of heat energy needed to change a material from a liquid to a gas
heat of fusion
- amount of heat energy needed to change a material from a solid to a liquid
Specific Heat
How heat flows
heat moves - cold doesn't
conduction - flow of heat between objects that are in direct contact Ex: metal rod in fire

convection - flow of heat caused by the movement of molecules in a liquid or gas
Ex: water boiling on stove

radiation - does not require the movement of particles; travels through empty space
Ex: the sun's energy
Energy Transformations
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it is transformed from one form to another.

amount of heat per unit of mass required to raise the heat by 1 degree Celsius

high specific heat means it can absorb a LOT of
heat without changing temperature

Electrical Energy (EE) – anything that uses electricity
Chemical Energy (CE) – energy in bonds – food, burning
Mechanical Energy (ME) – anything with moving parts
Radiant Energy (RE) – light
Thermal Energy (TE) – heat
Nuclear Energy (NE) – radioactive
Gas Laws
- if temperature remains constant, the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely proportional
- if the pressure remains constant, temperature and volume of a gas are directly proportional
Full transcript