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Copy of American Imperialism

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Mr. Smith

on 31 October 2013

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Transcript of Copy of American Imperialism

What are the reasons for Imperialism?
What do you lose when you become an Imperial

Should the
United States become an Imperial Power?

So what is Imperialism?
"From sea to shining sea"... Now what?
Review Time...
Louisiana Purchase
Mexican American War
Many European nations began taking over weaker nations. So eventually we decided we should do this too.

Imperialism is...
the economic and political domination of a strong nation over other weaker ones
"Small states are of the past and have no future. ....
The great nations are rapidly absorbing for their future expansion and their present defense all the waste places of earth. It is a movement which makes for civilization and advancement of the race."
-Henry Cabot Lodge, 1895

Americans had preferred to isolate themselves during the 1860s – 1880s because we could produce pretty much everything that we needed.
– avoiding involvement in other countries’ affairs.
That changed people wanted America to grow because of:
1. Economic and military competition from other nations
2. A growing feeling of cultural superiority

The 1893 depression had the U.S. realize that we needed foreign markets in order to be able to keep our economy strong.

We realized we needed a stronger foreign market to expand trade opportunities throughout the world

From early 1800s the US’s thought was it had the right & duty to invade & occupy all of N. America.

Manifest Destiny
but by the late 19th Century....
So what reasons are there for the US to become an imperial power?
U.S. Economy
But there is another reason for Imperialism
So how do we increase international trade?
-What about tariffs?
- Tariffs were meant to protect a nations economy,
- Industrial countries could not trade with one another.
- Investment opportunities were slowing in Europe because they were becoming industrialized
-so they wanted to invest money elsewhere

- In exchange for protection they had to listen to the advice of the protectors on how to rule their countries.

The USA saw a need to have foreign markets as well to keep the US economy strong
In order to have a strong economy we need to sell goods
How will we transport the goods?

If we use ships to transport goods what will we use to protect them?
What type of ships were we using?

- Steam powered
What was their fuel?
How will we refuel them when we are overseas?
-US naval bases throughout the world
We began to compete with other imperial powers like Great Britain, Spain, France, Japan, and Russia

-With the need for new markets, international naval bases were becoming a necessity

The last main reason for the United States to become imperialistic is because of ...
What is Ethnocentrism???????
American Cultural Superiority
The belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group or culture over all others
We thought we better spread our culture
so that everyone in the world could be like us

Who is to say which culture is better?

Since the US had conquered North America and claimed it for themselves through manifest destiny where were they supposed to go now?
How about the Pacific?
-America continued their expansion west past California and past the Pacific toward East Asia
1. Perry opens Japan
- America wanted to trade with Asia
- Japan saw the West as a threat to their culture and would only trade with Dutch and China.
- 1853 President Franklin Pierce sent Commodore Matthew C. Perry to go to Japan with his fleet and negotiate a trade treaty.
- Perry Arrives on July 8. 1853
- Disconcerted/impressed by the US fleet and technology (steam powered and large naval guns) they opened their harbors for trade on March 31, 1854.
- Major turning point for Japan having to change their culture internally in order to be able to keep up with western cultures and soon adopted many western practices. Japanese industrial revolution.
- 1890’s Japan had their own modern navy and started their own Empire

Destination: Japan
President Franklin Pierce sent Commodore Matthew C. Perry to go to Japan with his fleet and negotiate a trade treaty.
- America wanted to trade with Asia
-The problem was Japan saw the West as a threat to their culture and would only trade with Dutch and China.

- Perry Arrives on July 8. 1853

What do you think happened?


Feeling threatened/impressed by the US fleet and technology (steam powered and large naval guns) they opened their harbors for trade on March 31, 1854.
-Major turning point for Japan having to change their culture internally in order to be able to keep up with western cultures and soon adopted many western practices.

-Japanese have their own industrial revolution.

- New markets needed (ex Asia and Africa)
- Some areas became colonies others, protectorates.
- Protectorates- Imperial powers allowed local rulers to stay in control and protected them against rebellions and invasion.

Sounds like a good deal right?
- 1890’s Japan had their own modern navy and started their own Empire which arguably was greater than the US's in the 1930's and early 1940's
They feared our technology and weapons and realized that they better not fight back AND that they needed to modernize.

Social Darwinism- a theory that competition between individuals, groups, or nations drives social evolution in human societies.

- It was thought that we had an obligation to spread Christianity and "civilization to inferior people"
Impact on Japan- Japan quickly began to modernize and change their “backward” ways
Now lets take a look at our assignment...
Destination: Hawaii
"The crossroads of the Pacific"
In the early 1800's Hawaii was a stop for ships crossing the Pacific Ocean.
(Whaling ships and missionaries)
Soon Americans realized the perfect weather for growing sugar cane and Pineapple
So we wanted to TAKE IT!
American's stayed in Hawaii to grow sugar and fruits like pineapple.
- Plantations established by the mid 1800’s and soon became very wealthy

- McKinley Tariff- 1890, Hawaiian sugar is now more expensive = Economic downturn.
- This economic downturn causes Hawaii to begin to turn to other nations for support.
- Afraid Hawaii would turn to England or France the U.S. drops tariffs to increase trade and help Hawaii.
- Trade Treaty’s established and the US gains Pearl Harbor as a Naval Base.
- Queen Liliuokalani -leader of Hawaii
- ascended the throne,
- In 1893, Queen Liliuokalani attempted to restore voting rights to Hawaiian citizens and strip it from America land owners.

- Hawaii is annexed 5 years later after Grover Cleveland was out of office, because he was against imperialism.
-Hawaii officially annexed by the U.S. in 1898

ANNEX – when a powerful country takes a chunk of land and makes it part of their territory
So lets review what Happened:

-To restore native Hawaiian's power, The Queen took away voting
rights of Americans living in Hawaii so...
-The Americans asked the U.S. to support their overthrow of the Queen.
-The U.S. agreed in a effort to protect Hawaiian sugar trade.
- The Americans then asked Congress to Annex Hawaii.

Why: Economics and Military, Hawaii’s combination of sugar trade and being a perfect location for a military base during the Spanish American War led America to annex.
So we just looked at Japan so where to now?
How about........
- Alaska had been a Russian colony
- Russia wanted to sell Alaska (they figured it was
useless land)
- The U.S. decides to buy it and us it as a refueling
station on the way to Asia
- Seward was Secretary of State
- Paid $7.2 million in 1867 for “Seward’s Icebox” or
“Seward’s Folly”
- Gold discovered in 1896
- Oh yeah and its really cold there unless your a polar

Ok so in the Pacific we have looked
at Japan and now Alaska.
So where to now?....
How about?........
- Plantation owners pressured the Hawaiian King into accepting a new constitution limiting his power. Hawaii was now losing control

-In 1887, Hawaii gives people voting rights based on Property ownership and not citizenship.
Turn to your neighbors and discuss/write down what problems may come up if only land owners are allowed to vote.
So what did you come up with?
The American then led a coup d'etat, backed by the U.S.
- 50 U.S. Marines overthrow the Queen and a provincial pro-American government is set up.
What do you think happened next?
The American planters in Hawaii organized an uprising.
50 U.S. Marines helped overthrow Queen Liliuokalani and set up a pro-American government.
Hawaii officially annexed by the U.S. in 1898

Coup d'etat- to depose the existing government and replace it with another body
So we have looked at Japan, Alaska and now Hawaii, where to now?

How about?......

The European powers and Japan forced China to give them land and trading rights

They divided China up amongst themselves in "Spheres of Influence".
-The United States proposed an "Open Door Policy" to allow everyone to trade freely with China.
-Although Europe is not thrilled with this plan, they didn't want to go to war over it.

Why: Economic and political, Chinese trade increased demand for American goods.
spheres of influence – areas where another nation has economic and political control
But wait a minute we wanted to be involved too,
but we didn't want just a piece of the pie. We wanted access to the hole thing!!!!
Free to trade
Spheres of Influence
Annexing Hawaii-
Destination: China
Asia: "The Unlimited Frontier"

What happened:
-In the 1890s China was not stable due to fighting within the country. So........
So now that we have talked about the Pacific portion of American Imperialism lets talk about our next topic the Spanish American War.

Where did this war take place?
Who was it between?
Spain vs. America
Why would we be interested in Alaska?
It sounds dangerous and cold =(
Why else would we be interested in Hawaii?
What could we use it for besides a stopping point on the way to East Asia?
Cuba was owned by.......
So why was America involved ?

o Cuba was an old Spanish colony
o They owned sugar plantations which made Spain
a lot of money, and created 1/3 of the worlds sugar
o 1/3 population were slaves until 1886
-Even though they were now not slaves
they were not much better off.
-Had very few freedoms and were not able to have their own government

o Rebellion began in 1868 when rebels started a guerrilla war against Spain. Ended in 1876.
Guerrilla war-

o Cuban rebels fled to the US to plan a new revolution
o Jose Marti, a Cuban guerillas, fighting against Spanish authorities
-exiled leader, Poet/Writer, united the exiled rebels and funded and trained for a invasion

o US and Cuba were economically linked, US buys most of their sugar and US invested $50 million in Mines, Railroads, and sugar plantations

Plus look at its location to the U.S.
-It is very close and strategically located in the Gulf of Mexico
So it's kind of a long story.....
the use of hit-and-run tactics by small, mobile groups of irregular forces operating in territory controlled by a hostile, regular force.
o New US tariff on sugar decimates Cuban economy in 1894.
-President Grover Cleveland was against imperialism and did not want to be involved in the Cuban rebellion.
- He declared the U.S. to be a neutral party
Yellow Journalism was huge during this time. It built support from all over the world for the rebellion.
Yellow journalism?
Yellow journalism is sensational reports in the media which writers often exaggerated and often make up stories to attract readers.
We will be looking at yellow journalism articles from this time period later.
-William Randolph Hearst
-Joseph Pulitzer

Both journalists who wrote about this cause in favor of the rebels .
So what were they writing about?

General Valeriano Weyler (Spain)
a.k.a El Carnicero “THE BUTCHER”

- He put hundreds of thousands of men woman and children in “reconcentration camps” to keep them from giving aid to the rebels. Tens of thousands died of starvation and disease.

o Rebels lead a guerrilla war, destroying plantations and supply's.
o With American businesses invested in Cuban plantations and railroads, Cuba hoped for them to intervene.

President McKinley Intervened in 1897
o News of this reached America and led to their intervention in the war.
Spain was holding on to Cuba which was one of there last remaining colonies
Cubans revolt wanting to be free

He didn't want them to aid the rebels because....
o Eventually he warned Spain if not over soon US may have to intervene (could lead to war)
Did not want to intervene, he thought it was too costly
o Spain offered Cuba autonomy (right to have their own government) as long as they were part of the Spanish Empire.
o Cuba refused the deal wanting full independence.

o Spanish Loyalist angry and rioted in Havana.
o McKinley sent USS Maine if American citizens in Havana needed to be evacuated.
Media within the U.S. did not agree...
o Jose Marti launches a new rebellion in Feb 1885, He is killed
Not wanting to go to war
U.S. calls for war!!!!
What do you think Cuba si
The war was one of the most successful in U.S. history.

- Spain was unprepared for war
- Forces weak from fighting rebels and the tropical heat.
- Spanish Navy, old and manned by poorly trained crew
- US had more battleships
- It was understood that the war would be decided at sea, do to Spain being unable to resupply troops, they would be forced to surrender.

August 12, 1898 – Spain and U.S. agreed to a cease-fire

-The war lasted for around five months
-Less than 400 American soldiers died in battle
- 5000 die from diseases

The US Navy takes
the Philippines
o US Navy was ready for war with Spain
o First place we went to when war broke out
o Another US fleet based near Hong Kong (China) attacked the Spanish fleet in the Philippines.
o The Philippines was another Spanish Colony
o US Navy prevented the Spanish fleet located there to head east to attack the US
o George Dewey defeats Spanish fleet on May 1, 1898 in Manila Bay
Fighting in Cuba
17,000 troops landed on CUBA’s mainland
-Among these troops were the volunteer unit called the Rough Riders

-tries to negotiate with Spain
1) Media intercepts and publishes a letter written by Enrique Dupuy de Lome (Spanish ambassador to US) insulting McKinley
Two Events set off "the proverbial powder keg"

2) The U.S.S. Maine explodes in Havana harbor Feb 15, 1898

Future president
Theodore Roosevelt
Havana Harbor
USS Maine
The Spanish American War began!!!
A volunteer cavalry unit made
up of American cowboys,
Miners, and law officers.
-Assisted in the capture of
San Juan Hill July 1, 1898
- ¼ of total American troops fighting in Cuba were African American

USS Maine explodes
o No one is sure why,
o 266 out of 354 die
o Fire ignited ammo?
o Spanish mine?
o US blamed Spain

The Wreckage
Secretary of State
The Philippines
As a result of the war the U.S. acquired:
Cuba, Puerto Rico, the
Philippines, & Guam

Explosion of the
Februrary 15, 1898
Explosion of the USS Maine
Havana Harbor, 1898
“Awake United States!”
This song was rushed into print between the sinking of the Maine on February 15, 1898, and the declaration of war on April 25, 1898.

Eagle soar on high, and sound the battle cry!

And how proudly sailed the warship Maine,
a Nation’s pride, without a stain!
A wreck she lies, her sailors slain.
By two-faced butchers, paid by Spain!

Eagle soar on high,
And sound the battle cry
Wave the starry flag!
In mud it shall not drag!

We're now going to look at two newspaper headlines
Search for Missing Bride Continues
Headline #1
Headline #2
Bride Missing!!! Grooms Family Blame History of Mental Illness
-How do these headlines differ?
-Consider the wording and how a reader might respond to each article
• Cuba was colonized by Spain.
• Cuban rebels had been fighting for independence.
• Spain was thought to be brutal in repressing the rebellion.
• U.S. had business interests in Cuba.
• President McKinley had sent the Maine to Cuba
Why? To protect American interests? To prepare for war?
To intimidate Spain? This is debated by historians. . .).
• Maine explodes on Feb 15, 1898.
Today we are going to be comparing two newspaper accounts of an event that happened in 1898.
Who sunk the Maine?
According to this song, who sunk the Maine?
Does this prove the Spanish blew it up?
Writing prompt:

Which account is more believable? Why?

First section: Compare the evidence used by both papers to support their claims that the Maine was blown up by attack or by unknown causes. Which uses stronger evidence? Use at least three specific examples/phrases/words from the articles to support your position.

Second section: Does this difference in accounts matter? Why or why not?
Now read both news articles Times and Journal

Fill out the graphic organizer and answer the guiding questions

- Keep this in the back of your mind while reading.

Which account is more believable?
-Americans occupy Spanish colony of PUERTO RICO
An American Empire is Born!!!
Puerto Rico
Now what should the U.S. do with their shiny, newly acquired lands?

Reasons for Annexing the Philippines
Economic and military benefits
- would give us naval base in Asia
- would give us a large market for
American goods

* Belief that we had a moral duty to teach “less civilized” peoples how to live properly

“Surely this Spanish war has not been a grab for empire, but a heroic effort to free the oppressed, and to teach the millions of ignorant, debased human beings thus freed how to live.”
-a New England minister

Reasons NOT to annex Philippines

o Those opposed of annexation were called Anti-Imperialists

They disliked the idea because the cost outweighed the economic benefit
-Filipino labor would drive down American wages,
-violated American principals

(Some famous anti imperialists to mention were Andrew Carnegie, Jane Adams, Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain), and Samuel Gompers)
President McKinley
Says - YES we will annex Philippines

Should the U.S. give the
Philippines their independence
or keep it as a territory?


There was a debate over the annexation of the Philippines.
What is ANNEX again ?
– when a powerful country takes a chunk of land and makes it part of their territory
Treaty of Paris
U.S. and Spain sign this treaty
Cuba becomes independent
U.S. acquires Puerto Rico and Guam, & pays Spain $20 million for Philippines
U.S. is officially an imperial power
Dec 10, 1898
o His reason was...
- we could not give them back to Spain,
- we could not give them to Germany,
- we could not govern themselves, and
- we had a duty to educate and
Christianize them.
Rebellion in the Philippines
o Controlling the Empire was difficult
o Emilio Aguinaldo upset that Philippines were
annexed instead of given independence.

o Guerrilla war began in the Philippines against the US.
o General Arthur MacArthur (Douglas’s dad) uses tactics similar to those of the Spanish against the Cuban rebellion
o MacArthur sets up reconcentration camps to separate guerrillas and civilians.
o Thousands of Filipinos died from disease and starvation
o William Howard Taft (future president) is the first governor
o He attempts to win over the Filipinos by
-reforming education by setting up a public
school system,
- Increasing transportation and
communication by building railways
and telegraph lines
- Creating health care, eliminating
many diseases.
o Slowly but surely relations between the US and the Filipinos improved
o Aguinaldo was eventually captured
o He soon accepted the US having control of the island and ordered his troops to surrender.
o Summer 1902 the rebellion was over
o Filipinos were given a greater role in the government and eventually were allowed to vote for their own congress and president.
o 1946 the US grants independence to the Philippines

Governing Puerto Rico

o Congress passes Foraker act in 1900 making Puerto
Rico an unincorporated territory
o Puerto Ricans were not US citiczens, had
no constitutional rights
-Congress could pass any law it wanted on the island

Cuba and the Platt Amendment
o After the Spanish American war America set up a military government
o Even though promised their freedom, President McKinley made sure Cuba would be tied to the United States.
o Cuba allowed to have their own constitution, with exceptions.

Why are we going to the Philippines?
The Platt Amendment (Sen. Orville Platt)
1. Cuba could not create a treaty with another country that would weaken their independence or allow another foreign power to gain territory in Cuba
2. Cuba had to allow the US to buy or lease naval stations in Cuba
3. Cuban debt must be low to prevent foreign powers using military strength to enforce payment
4. US has the right to intervene in Cuaban affairs in order to protect their independence and keep order
o Cuba rejected the Platt Amendment at first, they eventually added it to their constitution until 1934 making Cuba an American Protectorate.
-Cuba is given their freedom as promised
-The U.S. annexes Guam and Puerto Rico
But what to do with the Philippines???
-Remain true to Republican ideals? OR
-Become an imperial power?
I'll be back...
I mean
I shall return
General Arthur MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
Treaty of Paris
-was signed between ?

Spain sells the Philippines to US for $?
Cuba becomes?
Guam and Puerto Rico are?
Spain and America
Annexed by the US
$20 Million
12-3 New American Diplomacy!!!
Theodore Roosevelt became famous from his exploits in the Spanish American War.
What is Diplomacy?
= The conducting of relations

Roosevelt became Governor of in 1898 and was asked to run as Vice President for William McKinley in 1900
McKinley Assassinated on Sept, 6 1901
He was shot by
The U.S. had its eyes on Latin America
Instability in the region threatens business & the security of the U.S.

How you ask???
The Panama Canal
The Panama Canal would cut distance from NY to San Francisco by 8,500 miles & 60 days

Teddy Roosevelt
wanted to create a canal in Panama to join the and Oceans
A narrow strip of land joining
two larger areas of land

But why create a canal???
“Panama” was owned by?

How much Money did the US offer Colombia?
We're gonna
need more $
That's a good one
Teddy Roosevelt plotted a Panamanian revolt

How you like
me now?
US blockade results in Panama’s independence (Panama gives U.S. 10 mile strip for canal)

-Pres. Roosevelt thought showing off
American military power would make
nations think twice about fighting,
therefore leading to global peace!

-He believed in the following saying???

A Growing Presence in Latin America
He created a massive Navy called ???
TR's Big Stick Diplomacy
As interest in Latin America grew, TR issued a to the Monroe Doctrine to extend the policy further.

-An extension to an existing policy
Monroe Doctrine
Since 1820s the U.S. used the _______________ to keep others out of the Americas
-European expansion in west hem. is an act of war against the U.S.

US has right to act as an “international police officer” in the Americas
Taft became President after Teddy
-his foreign policies came to be known as “dollar diplomacy"
Dollar Diplomacy
Use of money instead of bullets to influence foreign countries

Woodrow Wilson becomes President in 1913.
His foreign policy was to support and nurture democracy throughout the world.
His first test = Mexico…

From 1911 - 1917, Mexico had been going through a revolution
After some U.S. sailors were accidentally arrested by Mexican authorities, Wilson sent the Navy to occupy coast of Mexico. 100 Mexicans die

THEN, Francisco (Pancho) Villa, a Mexican rebel general led rebels into New Mexico, killing 18 Americans.
We went looking for him, but didn’t find him. Led to bad feelings between U.S. and Mexico.

What role do you think a nation like the U.S. should take in world affairs? Why?
What role does the U.S. take?
Do you agree or disagree? Why or Why not?

Alfred the Quizzical Duck
Who is this?
What war made Theodore Roosevelt Famous?
What was Taft's foreign Policy called?
The Great White Fleet
How did Teddy respond?
$10 million & $250,000 per year
Atlantic Pacific
Leon Czolgosz
New York
So how did Teddy become president?
What did Colombia say?
Pancho Villa
Full transcript