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Transcript of Tollund Man
Tollund Man's death
Who is Tollund man?
Tollund man is one of the most famous prehistoric humans ever recovered.
On the 8th of May 1950 in a small town called Silkeborg Denmark a body was found in a bog by two young brothers. They thought perhaps it was a body from a murder.
Investigations took place by the police and people from the local museum. It was concluded that it was not a murder but instead a bog body.
Overview of Tollund man
Tollund Man found in his final resting place.
This Prezi presentation has been developed to assist you in your upcoming assignment. Providing you with all the information you need regarding Tollund Man. This case study will challenge you to think historically allowing you to attempt to solve the mystery of why Tollund Man died. It is a fascinating study and will test/develop your historical thinking skills. Good luck.
Welcome to the Tollund Man case study
This section will focus on using sources to help you develop your theories on why Tollund Man died. Remember to use a source to strengthen your argument you need to analyse it and apply it to the question.
Why is Tullond Man Important?
This is a great question and one that may be pondering in your mind.
Tullond Man is important because he is:
one of the most precisely dated human remains.
Extremely well preserved.
Food remains were still in his stomach.
Transports us back to the Iron Age.
Why did Tollund Man Die?
The question of why Tollund Man died will plague historians forever. However the fact that a noose was tied around his neck leaving intruding marks suggest he was hung. This is an assumption however it is an educated one. But this does not give us an accurate answer to why he died. Was he a criminal? A sacrifice? Heretic? A victim of a murder?
When fully excavated it was found that Tollund Man was fully naked.
He had a belt made of leather around his waste and a sheep skin pointed hat around his head.
Tollund man is believed to be 30 to 40 years old at death.
Approximately 161cm tall.
Tollund mans eyes and mouth were closed when buried.
An area of wet muddy ground to soft to support a heavy body.
A brown material consisting of partly decomposed vegetable matter forming a deposit on acidic, boggy ground which is dried for use in gardening and as fuel.
Significance? Peat was dug during the Iron age as it acted as compost which would enhance agricultural yields. Peat was also used as a fuel in such things as fires.
Sources and their significance for Tollund Man.
What do you think?
Among other things Tacitus wrote: "They hang traitors and renegades in trees, cowards (yellow), combat evaders (afraid to go to war) and unnaturally immoral people they lower into filthy swamps and cover them with branches". Another account written down by Tacitus describes how a Germanic tribe, the Semnonans (from the northern part of Germany), sacrificed human beings.
Both accounts apparently apply to the Tollund Man and many of the other bog bodies. However, Tacitus wrote down the accounts approximately 400 years after the Tollund Man had died. If any of the information Tacitus provides us with is true in regards to the Tollund Man then it is probably the second of the two accounts. Because one thing is certain - the people who hanged the Tollund Man were not on bad terms with him - despite the fact that they actually hanged him! It is impossible to imagine that they would have carried him to the bog and carefully placed him in the sleeping position in which he was found, if they had regarded him as a criminal.
Context - Tollund Man
The context of Tollund Man is extremely important when attempting to solve the mystery of why he died.
Tollund man lived in the Celtic Iron Age or the pre-Roman Iron Age which lasted from 500BCE till 0CE.
The Iron Age was subdivided into to era's that were named after the tribes who had the most influence over that period.
Everyday Life - Context
God's and Religion
The Iron Age and the rest of the World
Create your "Tollund Man"
Almost everybody during the Iron Age were involved in agricultural work.
Artisans did exist but mostly in the field of blacksmiths.
Women also worked in agriculture, mostly cooking food.
Life was very driven by work, once children were old enough they were usually put to work tending to livestock etc.
Cooking food was driven by fire either done over the fireplace or using earthenware equipment.
Diet was driven by grains, this is evident as Tollund Mans last meal was made up of some kind of porridge made of barley, rye and oat.
The following were common staples:
Fish (if you lived near the sea)
Many items of clothing have been found in bogs .
The most common type of clothing was a fur cape probably due to the cold climate of modern day Denmark.
Most capes were made out of sheep skin as this was easy and fairly cheap to produce.
Women used different kinds of plants to color their clothing.
When people died they were cremated, placed in an urn and lowered into a grave then covered by stones.
Cremation was universal during the time of Tollund Man.
It is believed that sacrifices were placed whole in a bog as this was thought to be more respectful to the god's.
It is unclear who these god's were however it would not be unreasonable to think these people were sacrifices.
Two populations were prevalent during the Iron Age: The Celts(South) and the Teutons(North).
The Roman Empire came to dominate most of the world's population.
Roman influence dominated the early centuries of CE lead by Emperor Augustus.
This changed the Iron Age around the world leading to new innovative technology. E.G Buildings, weaponry and Gods.
Using the information provided in this Prezi create a Day in the Life of Tollund Man. You will need to include the following things:
Place in society (EG class)
The question as to why Tollund Man died will plague humans forever. There are no written records from the time. Was Tollund man a:
There are written records from many years after from Roman historians however these can only be taken for what they are. Stories.
Bogs and digging for Peat
There have been many discoveries which illustrate people used to dig for peat during the Iron Age.
Along with finding bog bodies, peat spades have been found and dated back to the Iron Age.
Geologists have been able to work out that Tollund Man was placed in an excvation which strengthen the argument that he was a sacrifice.
Tollund Man was hung.
There is enough evidence to suggest this is how he died.
Tollund Man was also carried to his final resting place along an elaborate set of wooden walking planks.
His eyes and mouth were shut and placed in a sleeping position.
Tollund Man along with other bog bodies that have been found were all placed in bog's were they use to dig for peat.
After Tollund Man was discovered he through the same procedures a recent murder victim would.
The coroner found the following
Cervical vertebra's weren't broken, which is common in hanging's.
Tongue had become distended, common in hangings.
No signs of hanging in facial gestures, as eyes are normally protruding and tongue out.
However the coroner has no doubt he was hung
Using the information provided in the Prezi along with any research and continue to develop your ideas on why Tollund Man died.
Tollund Man - Recreation
Stone Carving - Artifact
Tollund Man - Community leader
Extract from the Tollund Man Website - Silkeborg museum/library.