Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.


Unit I: A Nation Divides | The Civil War | Reconstruction

No description

Clint Longwell

on 19 September 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Unit I: A Nation Divides | The Civil War | Reconstruction

The border states did not join the Confederacy. They stayed in the Union.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act was enacted in 1854
The legislation divided Nebraska into 2 separate areas
Residents of Kansas and Nebraska voted to allow or outlaw slavery

Congress assumed Kansas would become a slave state and Nebraska a free state

Northerners and Southerners went to Kansas to influence voting
Democrats and Whigs were forced to address the slavery issue.
Both parties supported popular sovereignty, having voters in a territory decide whether their territory would be free or slave.

Having voters decide had wide appeal since it seemed to keep with the tradition of American democracy. It would also remove Congress from the controversy.
The Issue of Slavery
The economic costs for both sides were staggering.
With Abraham Lincoln re-elected, the South lost all hopes the Union would negotiate a peace.
The presidential election of 1864 was between Republican Lincoln and Democrat McClellan.
They were called Copperheads as seen in this cartoon where they were portrayed threatening the Union.
Some northern Democrats opposed the war
Guiding Question
How did the Civil War bring temporary and lasting changes to American society?
The war transformed the economy and society of the Union and the Confederacy.

The North headed toward the modern world, while the South suffered physical and social damage that lasted for decades.
The Civil War: Part III
Homestead Act
Habeas Corpus
Clara Barton
Analyze how the war changed the economy and society in the North and South.
Explain the impact of war on women.
Using various forms of resistance against the Confederacy
Providing information and supplies to Union troops
Refusing to work for their southern owners
Running away to Union camps and working for the Union, often serving as spies or scouts
How slaves contributed to the war effort
Lincoln’s actions to abolish slavery:
He drafted the Emancipation Proclamation to abolish slavery.
Lincoln decided to wait for a Union victory to announce his plans.
Lincoln was pressured to address the issue of slavery because:
Union troops did not know what to do with slaves who came under Union control in conquered territories.
Slavery was very unpopular among the Union’s European allies.
New Technology & Death Rate
The Henry repeating rifle and the cone-shaped minié ball were part of new, more deadly technology of warfare introduced during the Civil War.
Death Rate
Both North and South were shocked by the large number of dead and injured from the battles
Military commanders had to change their battle strategies because of the new technologies
Early battles of the Civil War occurred in 2 areas of the North American continent.
The North had many advantages with a larger population, more factory production, and more railroads
How did each side’s resources and strategies affect the early battles of the war?
When the Civil War began, the North and South each had important strengths and weaknesses – the North had the industrial advantage over the agricultural South.
The Civil War: Part I
Robert E. Lee
Anaconda Plan
Border States
Stonewall Jackson
George B. McClellan
Ulysses S. Grant
Contrast the resources and strategies of the North and South
Describe the outcomes and effects of the early battles of the Civil War.
When Lincoln took office:
He urged peace between the Confederacy and the Union.
He decided to try to hold on to the Union forts the Confederacy claimed, such as Fort Sumter
The states with the largest slave populations seceded
Outgoing President Buchanan condemned South Carolina’s actions in public.
However, he did not use force to prevent it.
Within weeks, 6 other Southern states followed South Carolina.
South Carolina was the first southern state to leave the Union.
At a state convention held 6 weeks after Election Day, legislators voted to secede. It was a unanimous vote.
With no national candidate dominating the campaign, Lincoln won with just over half of the electoral votes needed and 40% of the popular vote.
The election of 1860 had 4 candidates
The decision came in 1857.
Ruled against Scott
Said slaves were property and not allowed to sue in court
Said the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional
Pleased the South
Angered the North and abolitionists
Within a year of the election, another event intensified the divisions in the nation over slavery.
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled on the case of Dred Scott, a slave who had lived in a free state and sued for his freedom
A Nation Divides: Part III
Republican Party
Dred Scott
Abraham Lincoln
Stephan A. Douglas
John Brown
Harper’s Ferry
Analyze how deepening sectional distrust affected the nation’s politics.
Compare the positions of Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas on the issue of slavery.
Explain the effect of John Brown’s raid on the slavery debate.
A Nation Divides: Part II
Underground Railroad
Harriet Tubman
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Kansas-Nebraska Act
John Brown
“Bleeding Kansas”
Analyze why the Fugitive Slave Act increased tensions between the North and South
Assess how the Kansas-Nebraska Act was seen differently by the North and South
Explain why fighting broke out in Kansas and the effects of that conflict.
In the election of 1848, the 2 political parties, the Democrats and the Whigs, split over the issue of slavery, and a 3rd party was formed, the Free-Soil Party.
It opposed the expansion of slavery
The Free-Soil Party lost the election but had an impact on politics
Raised the question as to who would decide the slavery issue
In 1846, the Wilmot Proviso stated that all lands acquired from Mexico would be free territories
It was defeated, but it brought slavery to public debate
Keeping a balance between free and slave states became a focus of Congress
How did Congress try to resolve the dispute between North and South over slavery?
As the nation expanded, the problem of slavery became a divisive and difficult issue to resolve.
Different economies and viewpoints of the North and South hindered compromise.
Guiding Question
A Nation Divides: Part I
Wilmot Proviso
Free-Soil Party
Popular Sovereignty
Compromise of 1850
Fugitive Slave Act
Contrast the economies, societies, and political views of the North and South
Describe the role of the Free-Soil Party in the election of 1848
Analyze why slavery in the territories was divisive issue between N & S and how Congress tried to settle the issue in 1850.
A Nation Divides & The Civil War
Thousands in cities and towns paid their respect as Lincoln’s body was transferred to Springfield, Illinois
Lincoln’s death:
United his northern supporters and critics
Caused intense disagreement in the Union over how to reunite the nation
Left the nation without a strong, steady hand guiding the Union
Just six days later, the nation was shocked when John Wilkes Booth assassinated Lincoln.
Booth and 4 others had planned to kill the President, V.P., and Secretary of State
They wanted to bring chaos to the Union so the South could regroup and continue the war
Booth was shot when found hiding in a barn in Virginia. His 4 accomplices were captured and hanged.
Guiding Question
What was the final outcome and impact of the Civil War?
The Civil War had lasting effects on the North and the South.
With the end of the war, Americans faced the challenge of rebuilding the nation.
The Civil War: Part V
Thirteenth Amendment
John Wilkes Booth
Mathew Brady
Land Grant College Act
Analyze the final events of the Civil War
Explain why the North won the war.
Assess the impact of the Civil War on the North and South
Guiding Question
How did the Battles of Vicksburg and Gettysburg change the course of the Civil War?
After having only limited success, the North won some significant battles in 1863.
Though the fighting continued, the year 1863 marked the beginning of the end for the Confederacy.
The Civil War: Part IV
George Pickett
Gettysburg Address
Total War
William T. Sherman
Explain what the Union gained by capturing Vicksburg.
Describe the importance of the Battle of Gettysburg.
Analyze how the Union pressed its military advantage after 1863.
Guiding Question
How did the Emancipation Proclamation and the efforts of African American soldiers affect the course of the war?
Lincoln recognized the need to include abolishing slavery as a goal of the war.
Free blacks joined the Union’s army and navy and fought for freedom.
The Civil War: Part II
Emancipation Proclamation
Militia Act
54th Massachusetts Regiment
Analyze why Lincoln decided to issue the Emancipation Proclamation and what it achieved.
Assess the different roles that African Americans played in the Civil War
The constitution of the Confederate States of America
Closely resembled the U.S. Constitution
Stressed the independence of each state
Implied that states had the right to secede
Forbid importing new slaves from other countries
Guiding Question
How did the Union finally collapse into a civil war?
Disagreement between the North and South over slavery continued, despite last-minute attempts such as the Crittenden Compromise.
With the election of Lincoln to the presidency, the crisis came to a head.
A Nation Divides: Part IV
Jefferson Davis
John C. Breckinridge
Confederate States of America
Crittenden Compromise
Fort Sumter
Compare the candidates in the election of 1860, and analyze the results.
Analyze why southern states seceded from the Union.
Assess the events that led to the outbreak of war
Identify the 3 main causes of the Civil War
Both believed slavery could be resolved peacefully
Douglas won the election
Debate gave Lincoln national recognition
In 1858, in a race for the Illinois senate seat, Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln debated the issue of slavery.
On the issue of slavery:
A fugitive slave from Maryland, Harriet Tubman, was called the “Black Moses” because she led so many people to freedom on the Underground Railroad
Free blacks and Northern abolitionists organized a network called the Underground Railroad
Calhoun and Webster’s positions on Clay’s compromise during Senate debate:
The Compromise of 1850 finally became law stating that:
Lee formally surrendered to Grant in the town of Appomattox Courthouse, VA on April 9, 1865
Conditions of the surrender were simply for the Confederates to “lay down their arms.”
In February 1865, the Confederacy sent a committee to discuss with Lincoln a possible end to the war
Congress has just proposed the Thirteenth Amendment – outlawing slavery – but the Confederate peace delegation could not accept it.
In the final months of the war, Grant tried to take Richmond
He laid siege to Petersburg just outside of and on the supply route of Richmond
In April 1865, Lee tried, unsuccessfully, to retreat to North Carolina.
To honor all the fallen soldiers, President Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address four months after the battle.
Anger over the draft led to a riot in New York City that lasted 4 days.
Mobs attacked both free African Americans and factories that made war materials
Both the North and South passed conscription laws.
It is estimated that half the eligible men in the Union (20-45 years old) fought in the Civil War
4 out of 5 men fought for the Confederacy
Prejudices face by African American troops:
Often assigned menial tasks and longest guard duty
Fought three-years to win equal pay
Killed if captured by Confederate troops
The enabled free blacks in the North to join the Union military and actively fight for their freedom. After the Militia Act:
Thousands of African Americans became Union soldiers
Nearly 2 dozen black Civil War soldiers received the Congressional Medal of Honor
Some 70,000 black soldiers lost their lives in over 40 major battles
The 54th Massachusetts Regiment was recognized for its action in the battle for Fort Wagner, SC
Two months before Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation, Congress had passed the Militia Act
Near the end of the 1850s, attempts at compromise over slavery had failed – the possibility of war between the North and South loomed!
John Brown’s raid failed but intensified national division
Most abolitionists (black and white) refused to join Brown although some sent money for guns
Brown’s plan failed – was arrested, tried, and executed
Lincoln and other Republicans condemned Brown
The South was on alert and many prepared for war.
John Brown organized a small party of men and attacked a federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry in VA.
His goal was to inspire local slaves to join a revolution that would defeat slavery.
In the presidential election of 1856 there were 5 political parties.
What developments deepened the divisions between the North and South?
By the mid-1850s, events caused a deep divide between sections of the nation that seemed unable to be resolved through negotiation and compromise.
Guiding Question
Popular novels condemned slavery, gaining northern support for abolition and infuriating the South
White abolitionist Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin that gave readers compassion for the nonviolent enslaved Tom.

Black abolitionist Martin Delany wrote Blake in which the enslaved Blake chooses to rebel violently against slavery.
The Fugitive Slave Act, part of the Compromise of 1850, required all citizens to catch and return runaway slaves.
How did the Fugitive Slave Act and the Kansas-Nebraska Act increase tensions between the North and the South?
The Compromise of 1850 resolved the slavery issue only for a short time
The slavery issue turned violent with the passage of the Fugitive Slave Law and the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Guiding Question
Henry Clay proposed a compromise balancing the number of free states and slave states in Congress known as the Compromise of 1850
The issue of slavery was debated in 1850 by three political leaders in Congress
Henry Clay from the West
Daniel Webster from the North
John Calhoun from the South
Sherman and his men tore up railroad tracks, destroyed buildings and private homes.
He forced people out of Atlanta and burned it
Southerners called the general “Sherman the Brute.”
On his march to the sea through Georgia, Sherman practices a strategy of total war.
In early 1864, Lincoln put Grant in charge of the entire Union military effort
Once in command of the Union forces, Grant followed a strategy of total war and pursues Lee relentlessly all the way to Richmond
Lee won the battle on the 1st day, but by the 3rd day the Union was better positioned
The Union (blue) was on the high ground
Confederate (red) General George Pickett heroically led his men on a charge to change the battle – he lost! And so did the South.
Battle of Gettysburg
Lasted 3 days
Bloodiest battle ever fought in U.S.
50,000 southern/northern men dead/wounded
Turning point of the Civil War
Lee’s army met Union troops at Gettysburg, PA
The Union saw the significance of Lee once again invading Northern territory.
The Union sent 90,000 soldiers to fight Lee’s 77,500
In the East…
Predictions were the Civil War would be short, but it lasted for four terrible years.
The economic sectional differences in the mid-1800s also greatly contributed to the national division.
A Nation Divided by Civil War
The issue of slavery had long divided the nation, even at the Constitutional Convention in 1787.
Abundant resources
Larger population
Emergence of new military leaders
Leadership of Lincoln
Determination of African Americans to end slavery
The South splits in two.
He captured the capital of Mississippi – Jackson
He gained control of the main rail line into Vicksburg and cut off all supplies.
He placed Vicksburg under siege.
Grant’s strategy to take Vicksburg:
This was key to the North’s Anaconda Plan to gain control of the river and to cut the South in half.
To win the war, the Union had to gain control of Vicksburg on the Mississippi River
It was a military decree
It freed slaves in the states still in rebellion on January 1, 1863.
It did not apply to border states
It did not apply to Confederate areas already under Union control
The Emancipation Proclamation was finally issued on September 22, 1862
Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation after the Union victory at Antietam.
It made the abolition of slavery one of the specific goals of the Union.
Union troops attacked Lee at Antietam, Maryland, before Lee could mount a surprise attack on the Union
The Battle of Antietam was the single bloodiest battle of the war with more than 23,000 soldiers dead or wounded.
In 1861, after the Civil War started, Kansas joined the Union as a free state.
The dispute over Kansas – South wanted it to be a slave state; the North wanted it to be a free state
Describing the violence in Kansas, reporters called the territory “Bleeding Kansas”
New Land Grant College Act established state universities to teach agriculture/mechanical arts
Sectional differences never again led to states leaving the Union
The economic, political, and social life of the nation gelled
The federal government increasingly played a larger role in American lives
Cities and countryside lay in ruins. Soldiers returned to find their homes/farms in shambles
African Americans in the South had to adjust to their new freedom
As Reconstruction progressed, blacks learned that freedom was not always a reality in the south. Many migrated west, taking advantage of the Homestead Act
A psychological advantage – fighting to preserve their way of life
Strong military tradition – inspiring leaders such as General Robert E. Lee
Strategic advantage – fighting a defensive war on familiar ground
Initially was to preserve the Union
Was aimed at keeping the 4 Border States in the Union, even though they allowed slavery (Missouri, Kentucky, Delaware, Maryland)
Later changed to include abolition of slavery
Factory production
Railroad miles
An established navy
A representative functioning government
Recognition from European nations
Urged by Clara Barton, many women helped with wounded or nursed troops on the battlefield
Barton later went on to establish the American Red Cross
Because of Barton’s work, Lincoln formed the first Sanitary Commission with women overseeing Union hospitals and sanitation in military facilities
At Lincoln’s request, Congress passed the Homestead Act which made western land available at low cost to those who would farm the land
Controversial Political Polices | Women of the Civil War
Passage of the act set off violence between Northerners and Southerners

Pro-Slavery Southern Border Ruffians from Missouri attacked anti-slavery town of Lawrence, Kansas
Northern abolitionist John Brown responded by killing 5 pro-slavery settlers
Both sides armed for battle
Spoke with direct and deliberate tone focusing on how slavery was a struggle between right and wrong
Opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act, popular sovereignty, and the Scott decision
Opposed the annexation of Texas
Had an energetic, commanding voice and spoke of the political issue
Supported the Kansas-Nebraska Act and popular sovereignty
Supported the annexation of Texas
Lincoln/Douglas Debates
The vote for Abraham Lincoln was mostly a vote for moderation toward the issue of slavery and a vote for the Union
However, the South felt it no longer had a voice in the national government and did not see how it could remain in the Union.
Jefferson Davis, former senator from Mississippi, became the president of the Confederate States of America.
However, Confederate forces attacked and captured the fort in defiance of Lincoln
After Fort Sumter fell, Lincoln declared that insurrection existed
Four more southern states immediately joined the Confederacy
The war strategies of the North were known as the Anaconda Plan
The plan was to blockade Southern ports with its navy and gain control of the Mississippi River to split the Confederacy in two.
They planned a long war to erode the Union's will to fight
They planned only to methodically defend their own territory rather than invade the North
They sought political recognition from France and Britain to maintain the cotton trade
The Mississippi Valley – western Kentucky, Tennessee, and then Shiloh and the port of New Orleans
The East – Manassas/Bull Run and later Richmond, Virginia
In controversial decrees, both President Lincoln and President Davis suspended the right of habeas corpus during the Civil War
Habeas Corpus - prevents a person from being held in jail without being charged of a specific crime
The industrial boom fed by the war continued and flourished, changing the U.S. into a world economic force
Congress passed a tariff law protecting the northern industries
The Civil War and Reconstruction had a lasting effect on state and national politics
Congress resolved the disputed election of 1876 with the Compromise of 1877
Rutherford B. Hayes became President
Remaining federal troops were withdrawn from the South
A southerner was appointed to a powerful cabinet position
Southern states were guaranteed federal subsidies to build railroads and improve their ports
By balancing the needs of the North and South, Congress’ compromise marked the end of Reconstruction.
The end of Reconstruction:
Radical Republicans lost power
Military operations in the South became too expensive
In 1872, the Freedman’s Bureau was dissolved
Starting in 1871, federal troops were withdrawn from the South
Radical Republican leader Charles Sumner died in 1874
Radical Republicans’ failure to convict President Johnson during his impeachment trial signaled the beginning of the end
Guiding Question
How and why did Reconstruction End?
Explain why Reconstruction ended
Evaluate the successes and failures of Reconstruction
Compromise of 1877
Explain why Reconstruction ended
Evaluate the successes and failures of Reconstruction
Congress passing and use of the Enforcement Acts reduced racial violence
The acts made it a federal crime to interfere with a citizen’s right to vote
Congress used the Enforcement Acts to indict Klansmen throughout the South
Although violence declined, racial hatred persisted
In reaction to Republican gains in the South, violent groups, such as the Ku Klux Klan organized to terrorize African Americans
Guiding Question
What were the immediate effects of Reconstruction?
After the war, there was a struggle for political control. African Americans used the power of their vote to elect many representatives from mayors to the U.S. Senate
Newly freed African Americans explored new relationships to social, political and economic life. Groups like the Ku Klux Klan aimed to turn back their progress through violence and intimidation.
Tenant Farming
Ku Klux Klan
Enforcement Acts
Explain how Republicans gained control of southern state governments
Discuss how freedmen adjusted to freedom and the South’s new economic system
Summarize efforts to limit African Americans’ rights and the federal government’s response
A plan of Reconstruction for the South was formed
To help the South rejoin the Union
To create laws to protect freed African Americans
To rebuild the South’s shattered economy
When the war ended, the South was in ruins
Homes were burned
Businesses closed
Properties abandoned
Freed African Americans lacked full citizenship and the means to make a living
Guiding Question
How did the Radical Republicans’ plans for Reconstruction differ from Lincoln’s and Johnson’s?
Radical Republicans wanted to punish the South for slavery and the war itself
Both Lincoln and Johnson wanted the southern states to be brought back into the Union quickly, using less punitive measures
The issues and results of Reconstruction had consequences for generations to come
Radical Republican
Wade-Davis Bill
Freedmen’s Bureau
Andrew Johnson
Black Code
Civil Rights Act of 1866
14th Amendment
15th Amendment
Explain why a plan was needed for Reconstruction in the South.
Compare the Reconstruction plans of Lincoln, Johnson, and Congress
Discuss Johnson’s political difficulties and impeachment
Critics saw scalawags and carpetbaggers as opportunists making their fortune off of the South’s misfortunes
The Republican Party attracted people who sought change, challenge, and opportunities to make money in the South.
During Reconstruction, Republicans gained control of southern state governments through the ballot box.
Thousands of black men exercised their new right to vote
Many white southerner men did not vote because they refused to sign the required loyalty oath to the Union
No citizen can be denied the right to vote because of “race, color or previous condition of servitude.”
The 15th Amendment, 1870
Under a new President, Ulysses S. Grant, Congress passed the 15th Amendment
Johnson’s opponents failed by one Senate vote to remove him from office
Eventually the House voted to impeach Johnson
President Johnson continued to veto and work against congressional legislation
The newly-formed organization helped feed, clothe, and educate blacks and whites in the South
Lincoln and the Radical Republicans agreed to establish the Freedman’s Bureau
Lincoln and the Radical Republicans in Congress were at odds in their proposals to rebuild the South.
African Americans were free from slavery but their rights were not guaranteed:
Did not have full citizenship
Could not vote
Did not have access to education
Southern landowners fought government redistribution of their land

Many northerners felt the confiscation of property violated the Constitution
Forty acres and a mule
Some northerners proposed the federal government should redistribute the land to former slaves
The plan sought to revitalize the South’s economy and provide income for African Americans
With the South’s economy destroyed, land became the most valuable asset; who should control it was hotly debated.
To many Americans, the most important issue was deciding the fate of the Confederate states – and there were conflicting opinions
Equality under the law for all citizens
States that refused to allow black people to vote would risk losing seats in the House of Representatives
Confederate officials could not hold federal or state offices
The 14th Amendment 1868
The Civil Rights Act of 1866
The 14th Amendment
The division of the South into five military districts
In response, Congress passed new legislation over President Johnson’s veto. This legislation included:
The South’s disregard of Reconstruction efforts angered moderates and Radical Republicans
Newly arriving southern state representatives were not seated
A committee was created to investigate how former slaves were being treated.
Political tensions boiled up in Congress
All southern states instituted black codes
Many states specifically limited the vote to white men
Some states sent Confederate officials to Congress
During the required state conventions, however, southern states tried to rebuild their prewar world.
By December 1865, most southern states had met Johnson’s requirements for readmission to the Union
He pardoned those who swore allegiance to the Union and the Constitution

Each Southern state needed to ratify the 13th Amendment
After Lincoln’s death, President Andrew Johnson wanted to restore the status of the southern states
New work arrangements for African American farmers developed
Single women carved out new roles for themselves, especially in the school system developed during Reconstruction.
Reconstruction also offered white and black women opportunities they did not find in the North.
Some Republicans proposed integration but the idea was generally unpopular
The system was expensive as there needed to be two schools in every district due to segregation
Public schools grew slowly in the South.
Reconstruction state constitutions mandated the creation of the public school system
Lincoln's 10% Plan
10% of state's voters needed to take a loyalty oath
A state's new constitution must have abolished slavery
Vetoed by Congress
Wade-Davis Bill
Required a majority of states' prewar voters to swear loyalty to the Union
Required guarantees of African American equality
Passed by Congress, pocket vetoed by Lincoln
3 Causes of the Civil War - The 3 "S's"

During the early 1800s, radical abolitionists (mostly from the North) intensified their opposition to slavery at the same time that slavery was becoming even more essential to the economy of the South.

As the North began to industrialize, it became increasingly reliant on wage laborers. As demands for cotton exploded with the creation of the cotton gin, the South became even more reliant on slave labor. The North and South were becoming separate "sections" of the country, each with distinct cultures, economies and social systems
States Rights

The old debate over federalism had never really died. Because of its higher population growth, the North would increasingly dominate the federal government. The South responded by claiming that the individual states should have more power to make decisions over issues such as slavery.
Total War: a military strategy in which an army attacks not only enemy troops but the economic and civilian resources that support them.
White southern men who had been locked out of prewar politics
White and black northerners who moved to the South to take advantage of many of the post-war opportunities there.
Most of the South's black and white poor
Often continued to owe to landowner year after year
Farmer had more control
Able to save money
Tenant Farming
Most independent arrangements
Farmer needed to have good money management skills
They Klan burned black schools and churches
Racial violence grew everywhere after the 15th Amendment was passed in 1869
Full transcript