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Zero tolerance policing
Transcript of Zero tolerance policing
zero tolerance policing? Are they valid? Broken windows policing Broken windows thesis Supporting evidence? Context? '...at the community level, disorder and crime are usually inextricably linked, in a kind of developmental sequence.' Why not impetus for community investment?
'The key is to identify neighbourhoods at the tipping point - where the public order is deteriorating but not unreclaimable...where a window is likely to be broken at any time, and must quickly be fixed if all are not to be shattered.' 4. Reduces actual crime Broad structural factors Compstat Below the surface... 1. Community controls have failed
2. Proper object of policing – public versus private sphere
3. ZTP reduces fear of crime
4. ZTP reduces actual crime Discussion 3. Or, do you think any of the assumptions that we have discussed are valid or justify zero tolerance policing? 1. Is ZTP about the fear of crime more than the actual reduction of crime? 'The essence of the policing role in maintaining order is to reinforce the informal control mechanisms of the community itself.' p462, Wilson and Kelling (1982). Type of crime Reiner R (2000); p470, Wilson and Kelling (1982). p466, Wilson and Kelling (1982). p470, Wilson and Kelling (1982). As long as the façade is intact, the strategy ignores what is behind closed doors. But note statistics in NSW (BOCSAR, 2011) 77% of victims of sexual assault, and 72% of victims of assault knew the offender.
52% of sexual and physical assaults were perpetrated in residential premises.
Note: underreporting and similar homicide statistics. - Data Cube 6, ‘4510.0 – Recorded Crime – Victims, Australia, 2011’, Table 1 – Victims of Sexual Assault – NSW (released 7 June 2012).
- Data Cube 5, ‘4510.0 – Recorded Crime – Victims, Australia, 2011’, Table 1 – Victims of Assault – NSW (released 7 June 2012). 3. Reduces fear of crime and increases confidence in the police '...they knew that having officers walk beats did in fact make their neighbourhoods safer... [even if] the crime rate has not gone down and in fact, may have gone up...' p461, Wilson and Kelling (1982). BUT Perpetuating cycle of fear of crime. Whose fear and confidence? a. Theory assumes rational offenders '...one unrepaired window is a signal that no one cares, and so breaking more windows costs nothing.' p462, Wilson and Kelling (1982).
Bowling B (1999); Brereton D (1999); Grabosky PN (1999);p257, Karmen A (2000). Manifestation of Reiner's police fetishism:
'Though citizens can do a great deal, the police are the key to order maintenance.' Bowling B (1999); Brereton D (1999); Grabosky PN (1999); Harcourt BE (2001). ZTP supported by NY experience? Factors: decline of crack cocaine epidemic; stabilisation of drug markets; ageing of ‘baby boomers’; restriction of access to firearms; community collaboration with police; longer sentences for violent crime; and crime prevention programs for children. Source: The Atlantic Monthly (March, 1981) p231, Newburn T and Jones T (2007); p96, Dixon D (1998). Source: FBI's Uniform Crime Reports as prepared by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (data obtained through the UCR data tool) Consequences for reporting? Grabosky PN (1999). a. Community controls have failed --> police intervention the answer
b. Proper object of policing - public sphere
c. Reduction of fear and increase in confidence
d. Reduction of actual crime '...the unchecked panhandler is, in effect, the first broken window.' p465, Wilson and Kelling (1982). 2. If the assumptions are problematic, why does ZTP still pervade societal discourse?