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2) Postmodernism - Def(y/in)ing

Working towards a definition of the postmodern via architecture.


on 28 July 2011

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Transcript of 2) Postmodernism - Def(y/in)ing

Westin Bonaventure hotel Postmodernism Disillusionment and the value of play 2)Def(in/y)ing Working
definition the term postmodernism Postmodernity in terms of
Architecture International style Postmodern Architecture "de-naturalising the natural" Origins Death Results Examples Characteristics Piazza d'Italia Dancing House Nieue Staatsgallerie Strengthens & Subverts modernism resists universalism "Borrowing/quoting"
history/popular culture 1)Historical+
Social context 3) Postmodern art Broad Concerns Postmodern art Modern Art Relationship: 1) Supporting Change 1) continuation of subversive practices 2) move towards abstraction 2) Rejection ahistoricity art as having a single purpose appeal to universalism Feminist art Postcolonial Art Queer Art Commodity critics Pop art Conceptual art Return to fugurative art Land art Performance art Installation/New Media Categories Anticipating postmodernism Expressionism Hard-edge functionalism unstable viewer subjective reality irrational/incoherent identity Plural Fragmentary Jameson's critique Depthless Weak Schisophrenic Pastiche
(vs. parody) No distinction between high- & low art/culture Appropriation Intertextuality Work/Text/Author Parody Ontological (vs. Modern Epistemology) Hutcheon defence Questions reality status
Boundaries crossed? Questions about truth and knowledge
how to interpret the world Duchamp, Lawler,
Levine, Kruger,
Warhol Irony, parody, satire
effectively used by
postmodern artists Deconstructing the concept of the
artist/author Selfreflexivity 4) Supporters+Detractors Habermas Lyotard Incredulity towards metanarratives Modernism as an unfinished project Status of knowledge Knowledge as narratives Grand- & Metanarratives Grand narratives
of Modernity Postmodernity Incredulity Parody History Universality Freedom Beauty Reason/Truth Rainbow nation The Autonomous
individual Progress Multinational Capitalism And their destruction Crimes against humanity Critique from Science Subjectivity History Resistance Memory humanity can change Progress Human nature as socially/
historically mutable can be changed each individual unique TIMEFRAME 20th c. Science 1968 student uprising Psychoanalysis Feminism Globalization/
Capitalism Cold War New Media communication
networks/hyperreality Decolonialisation Queer Activism Deconstructing
subjectivity crisis in representation language/text/
power Memory/narrative/
history (fragmented/in flux/lack) MODERN
SUBJECTIVITY (fixed, immutable, essential core) concrete anchoring universal who am I? "I think therefore I am" Justice (ethics) Truth (Epistemology) Beauty (Aesthetics} "I think where I am not" Psychoanalysis
(the unconscious subject)
dualism: Consious/unconscious Poststructuralist
death of the author
Dualism: Author/reader postcolonial alterity
(the ethnic subject)
Dualism:Nature/culture, black/white Queer alterity
{the performative subject}
Nature/culture, straight/queer Feminism
(the gendered subject]
nature/culture, Woman/man "I am woman" "I am beyond gender &
sexual categorization" "I am not slave, but not yet free" The Other "my interpretation
creates the work" Posthuman subjectivity
(the unconscious subject)
dualism: human/machine "I am cyborg" Zander Blom, Untitled or The Boulevard, Bedroom 1 Corner 2, 5-11pm, Friday 1 June 2007. Working definition:
In "The Politics of Postmodernism" (2002) Linda Hutcheon states that: “…the postmodern’s initial concern is to de-naturalize some of the dominant features of our way of life; to point out that those entities that we unthinkingly experience as ‘natural’ …are in fact ‘cultural’; made by us, not given to us” (1-2).

“...die aanvanklike belang van die postmoderne is om die vernaamste kenmerke van ons bestaan te ont-naturaliseer; om uit te wys dat die aspekte wat ons onbewustelik as 'nattuurlik' ervaar eintlik 'kultureel' is; nie gegewe nie, maar deur onsself gemaak.”
(Linda Hutcheon) [Vertaling] pervasive in North America and Europe in the late 1970's and 1980's...
begin aanklank vind in die laat 1970'er en 1980'er jare...

when the playful spirit of architectural postmodernism soon spread to all realms of culture
toe postmoderne argitektuur die weg gebaan het vir ewe-speelse metodieke in alle kultuur-arenas

However, the term has been used before this...
Die term was egter al voorheen gebruik... Aims
characteristics The International style was founded on the principles of: Rationality/functionality Universality Social Engineering Humanitarianism Up-to-date materials
/technology Avoid ornamentation Contemporary New York architecture would be rationally organised and functional
argitektuur sou rasioneel georganiseer en funksioneel wees

form follows function

The town was to become a 'working tool' (Conrads 1970:89) to allow the smooth running and efficient administration of working life.
Die stad sou 'n werktuig wees vir die effektiewe administrase en behoud van die werkslewe. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Seagram Building (interior) 1954-58 and refuse to resort to unnecessary ornamentation.
en onnodige ornamentasie vermy Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Seagram Building. New York. 1954 to 1958 citizens were to have all of their needs catered for in an organised manner (vs. the 19th c. slums with poor sanitation and crumbling social infrastructures)
burgers se behoeftes sou na omgesien word op 'n georganiseerde wyse. (in teenstelling met die 19de eeuse krottebuurte met hul slegte gesondheidstoestande en verbrokkelende sosiale infrastrukture) use up-to-date materials such as glass, concrete and steel
die nuutste boumateriale en tegnieke gebruik (glas, beton, staal) Le Corbusier. Urban Project for Paris. 1925 19th c. British slum Milan Cathedral, Italy, 1338-1965 Le Corbusier,Villa Savoye,1931 of the massive programmes of industrial planning:
van die grootskaalse industriele beplanning: forced people into uniform landscapes
mense was in uniforme omgewings forseer

broke up traditional communities.
Tradisionele gemeenskappe het verbrokkel

Overestimated the adaptability of people to rational schemes
menslike aanpasbaarheid tot rasionele skemas was oorskat

frequently led to crime, vandalism, and social isolation
dikwels tot misdaad, vandalisme en sosiale isolasie gelei Minoru Yamasaki, Pruitt-Igoe-scheme,1956 Minoru-Yamasaki,Pruitt-Igoe-scheme,1956,
(vandalised interior view). Urban Graffiti, Brooklyn, NY. “Happily, we can date the death of Modern Architecture to a precise moment in time, Unlike the death of a person, which is becoming a complex affair of brain waves versus hearbeats, Modern Architecture went out with a bang.. Modern architecture died in St. Louis, Missouri on July 15, 1972 at 3:32pm (or thereabouts) when the infamous Pruitt-Igoe scheme, or rather several of its slab blocks, were given the final coup de grace by dynamite. Previously it had been vandalised, mutilated and defaced by its [...] inhabitants, and although millions of dollars were pumped back, trying to keep it alive (fixing the broken elevators, repairing smashed windows, repainting), it was finally put out of its misery. Boom, boom, boom.”
Charles Jencks (1991:23) Minoru Yamasaki, Pruitt-Igoe-scheme,1956 (demolition 1972) Incidentally, Minoru Yamasaki also designed the World Trade Centre, the tragic demise of which to many marked the end of Postmodernism in the sense that this shock to America's sense of invincibility can only mark the beginning of a 'new realism' in which irony and parody are indulgences.

Dit is interressant om te noem dat Minoru Yamasaki ook die Wêreld Handelsentrum ontwerp het. Verskeie bronne het al genoem dat die tragiese omstandighede van hierdie geboue se verwoesting die einde van Postmodernisme ingehul het. Ironie en parodie is volgens hierdie siening onnodige vergunnings in 'n politiese era wat 'n 'nuwe realisme' benodig. Minoru Yamasaki, World Trade Centre, NY
construction started 1972, destruction: 9/11/2001 The architectural style that emerged as a response to what many perceived to be the sterility of the International style.
Die styl van argitektuur wat 'n antwoord was op wat menigte gesien het as die Internasionale styl se steriliteit.

In "Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture" (1966) Robert Venturi challenged modernism and celebrated the mix of historic styles in great cities such as Rome.
Robert Venturi het in "Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture" (1966) modernisme gekritiseer en die vermenging van historiese style in die magtige stede soos Rome gevier Frank Gehry, Dancing House, Prague, 1996 (Facade detail) reflects the Italian roots of the local community by parodying the Trevi Fountain, Roman classical arches.
Reflekteer die Italiaanse oorsprong van die plaaslike gemeenskap deur die Trevi fontein, Romeins klassieke boogwerk te parodieer.

Incorporates the geographical shape of Italy itself
Gebruik die geografiese buitelyn van Italië (die vorm van die waterpoel)

transcoding their historical forms into contemporary materials (neon, steel)
transkodeer die historiese vorms in kontemporere materiale, (staal, neon) Charles Moore. Piazza d'Italia. 1978. New Orleans Nicola Salvi ,Trevi fountain, 1732-1762, Rome Employs IRONIC representation and contextual response to the museum's 'high art' content...
Gebruik IRONIESE uitbeelding en bied 'n kontekstuele antwoord op die museum se inhoud van 'hoë kuns'...

...through its citation of classical Egyptian and Roman cornices, arches and windows.
...deur klassieke Egiptiese en Romeinse pleisterwerk, boeë en vensters aan te haal.

The car-park is presented as a ruined castle with holes in its walls and loose blocks lying around its base.
Die parkeerarea word uitgebeeld as a bouvallige kasteel met gate in die mure en blok-klippe wat rondlê James Stirling. Neue Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart. 1984 the building was designed to appear like a pair of dancers, and was originally named “Fred & Ginger” after Fred Astaire & Ginger Roberts whose Hollywood immortality was cemented by appearing in no less than 10 musicals together on the big screen.
Ontwerp om soos 'n danspaar te lyk. Oorspronklik getitel “Fred & Ginger” (Astaire & Roberts – bekende Hollywood filmsterre wat in 10 musiekblyspel-films opgetree het) Vlado Milunić, Frank Gehry. Nationale-Nederlanden building
(Dancing House or Fred and Ginger). 1996. Prague. Merely by having a referent it undermines the anonymity of modernist architecture. That the referent comes from the arena of popular cinema adds to the charm and humour.
Bloot deur 'n referent te hê ondermyn dit die internasionale styl se anonimiteit. Die populêre kultuur verwysing verskaf karakter en humor aan die gebou. appears to be half finished, falling apart, exploding, or at least making the process of its construction visible.
blyk onklaar, asof dit inmekaar stort, ontplof, of behou ten aspekte van die bou/beplanningsproses in die voltooide gebou. Playfulness deconstructivist popular culture John C. Portman, Jr. ,Westin Bonaventure Hotel & Suites, Los Angeles (1976) According to Frederic Jameson the building aspires to be "a total space, a complete world, a miniature city in which new types of interaction and and congregation can occur.
Volgens Frederic Jameson poog die gebou om 'n totale ruimte te wees, 'n wêreld in geheel, 'n miniatuur stad waarin nuwe tipes interaksie en menslike vergadering kan plaasvind. The reflective glass skin and hard-to-find entrances lead to a peculiar and placeless dissociation in which the outside city is not even an exterior: when you look at the hotel's outer walls you only see the distorted image of everything that surrounds it.
Die reflektiewe glas van die gebou se glasgordyn-mure lei tot 'n eienaardige dissosiasie van gevoel van plek. Die stad daarbuite is nie 'buite' nie – van buite af gesien is slegs die verdraaide beeld van alles wat dit omring sigbaar. It is a 'hyperspace' – quite impossible to get your bearings (multiple floors with continually moving walkways, elevators, shopping complexes and gathering points).
Dit is 'n 'hipperruimte' – moeilik om nie pad byster te raak nie (verskeie verdiepings, loopvlakke wat gedurend beweeg, hysers, handelsentrums, en vergaderplekke). Consequence: intense disorientation, schizophrenic experience of depthlessness
Die resultaat: intense disoriëntasie, skisofreniese ondervinding van diepteloosheid. total space 'invisible space' disorienting hyperspace Employs the new materials and techniques of Modernist architecture, but it resists the uniformity and state organised social engineering of the International Style.
Gebruik die nuwe tegnieke en materiale van modernistiese argitektuur, maar dit waak teen die uniformiteit en staat-georganiseerde sosiale ingenieurswese van die Internasionale styl

'double coding' (Jencks's term) – appeals to elite and popular tastes, the designers and the users
'dubbele kodering' (Jencks se term) – vind aanklank by elite en populere smake, ontwerpers en gebruikers. focuses on critical engagement with already existing spaces and syles
fokus op 'n kritiese omgang met omgewings en style wat reeds bestaan

acknowledgement of regional identities and reference to local traditions.
Streeksgebonde identiteite en plaaslike tradisies word erken resists the flattening out of difference that occurred in modernism
gekant teen modernisme se poging om verskille te neutraliseer seeks to become ecclectic by borrowing styles from different periods and 'quoting' aspects of other buildings in their designs
eklekties, style word geleen van verskillende periodes, aspekte van ander geboue word “aangehaal” a return to the past as much as a movement forward but, history is treated ironically
'n terugkeer na die verlede (maar geskiedenis word met 'n sin vir ironie gehanteer) sowel as 'n beweging vorentoe (tegnieke, materiale, sosiale bewussyn) Philip Johnson, The Sony Tower, formerly the AT&T Building, New York (1984) Thomas Chippendale, 'Chinese' desk (18th c.) Early use: Arnold Toynbee's "A study of history" (1954) marks the one of the first uses of the term "postmodern". According to him modernism ended with the great world wars.
Arnold Toynbee se "A study of history" (1954) is een van die vroegste studies wat die term Postmodern gebruik.Volgens hom het modernisme geëindig met die groot wêreldoorloë. Modernism humanism Emancipation Progress the gradual rise of humanism (human beings are the basis of knowledge and action, are inherently valuable and dignified, and have free will)
Humanisme wat geleidelik na vore tree in die moderne tydperk (die mensdom as die begronding van kennis en aksie, kosbaar en statig, in besit van vrye wil) emancipation from superstition and mysticism as the enlightenment sought to provide a rational and scientific basis for human experience.
Die bevryding van bygelowigheid namate die verligting rasionele en wetenskaplike begronding vir die menslike ondervinding begin bied het Zenith of progress and development
Die toppunt van vooruitgang en ontwikkeling origin use Today, the term is used in two ways:
Die term word vandag op twee maniere gebruik: "Postmodernism" He defines Modernism as:
Toynbee definieer Modernisme as volg: The term first became pervasive in architectural discourse. Since architectural modernism is a much more homegenous category than modern art, it is thus a good starting place for any enquiry into what the "post" in postMODERNISM actually refers to.
Aangesien die term na vore getree het in argitektuur diskoers is hierdie die vertrekpunt op soek na 'n definisie. Moderne argitektuur is ook 'n veel meer homogene begrip as moderne kuns. PostMODERNE argitektuur verwys dus na iets meer spesifieks as postmoderne kuns.

Modern Architecture manifested in the form of the....
Moderne argitektuur het na vore getree in die vorm van die... ...designates a specific cultural context or historical epoch.
...verwys na 'n spesifieke kulturele konteks of historiese periode

..generally refers to the period of time after WW2, from the 1950's onwards
..verwys oor die algemeen na die tydsperiode wat na die 2de WO volg, rofweg van die 1950'er jare af generally used on questions of style and artistic representation. It is thus often described as a style or a genre

word oor die algemeen gebruik in die konteks van kuns en styl. Dit word dus gereeld as 'n kunsstyl of genre bestempel. Walter Gropius Le Corbusier, Workers' Housing, Pessac, near Bourdeaux, France, 1924, drawing. Le Corbusier, Workers' Housing, Pessac, near Bourdeaux, France, 1924 Le Corbusier, Workers' Housing, Pessac, near Bourdeaux, France, 1924, (Contemporary view) Apart from the international style's assault on the social fabric, it doesn't weather well. Adornment in architecture doesn't merely serve a decorative purpose, it protects the structural integrity of a wall by providing a protective "skin" against the elements.
Versiering in argitektuur dien nie net 'n estetiese doel nie, dit beskerm die strukturele integriteit van die mure teen die elemente soos 'n "vel". sought to renew the processes of building and design by eschewing traditional ad hoc environments in favour of a universal architectural grammar
het gepoog om die bou- en ontwerp proses te hernu d.m.v 'n universele taal van argitektuur i.pv. tradisionele dienaangaande omgewings.

business and housing developments would follow the same rules wherever they were produced
behuising en besigheidskomplekse sou dieselfde reels volg waarookal hul gebou sou word of postmodern architecture Bunny Lane Adam Kalkin, Bunny Lane, New Jersey (2001) Viewed from the side, this New Jersey dwelling appears to uphold the anonymous geometry of the international style.
Van die kant af gesien blyk hierdie huis in New Jersey om die anonieme geometriese styl van die internasionale styl voor te hou. Adam Kalkin, Bunny Lane, New Jersey (2001) Adam Kalkin, Bunny Lane, New Jersey (2001) Adam Kalkin, Bunny Lane, New Jersey (2001) Adam Kalkin, Bunny Lane, New Jersey (2001) From an oblique angle the structure reveals its pun: it is a house within a house.
'n Skuins aansig openbaar die struktuur se visuele 'woordspel': dit is 'n huis in 'n huis. The vernacular architecture of the original two story house is echoed in the entrance facade: the outline of the slanted roof archetype for Western suburban dwellings is translated in steel and glass.
Die populere argitektuur van die tradisionele (oorspronklike) tweeverdieping huis is soos 'n deursnit op die fasade van die buitestruktuur aangebring in glas – hierdie deursnit toon die vierkant en driehoek van die argetipiese (Westerse) huis. The traditional centre of the dwelling, the hearth, is moved outside, perhaps as an acknowledgment of contemporary homes revolving around the television, or perhaps because the family merely enjoy outside cooking...
Die vuurherd (die tradisionele middelpunt van 'n woning) is buite die struktuur. Moontlik met voorkennis van kontemporere wonings waar die televisiestel die nuwe middelpunt van die huis is, of bloot omdat die familie daarvan hou om te braai. Nine extra rooms stacked on top of each other in a grid remind of an open doll's house. The interiors' homely furnishings strengthen the toy-like nature of the overall design.
Nege ekstra kamers is opeengehoop in 'n 3 x 3 rooster soos 'n pophuis. Die onopgesmukte binneversiering versterk die ontwerp se "speelding"-estetika. The structure reveals a self-consciousness of its function as family dwelling, referencing itself, and traditional ideas of what a house should be.
Die struktuur toon 'n selfbewussyn van sy funksie as familie woning, en verwys met 'n sin vir ironie aan homself, en tradisionele idees van huislikheid in order to arrive at a... postmodernism grew up in the aftermath of the First World War
het ontwikkel in die nasleep van die eerste Wêreldoorlog

became pervasive in the post-Second World War reconstruction of Europe.
het deurlopend geword tydens die herbouing van Europa na die tweede Wêreldoorlog.
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