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Transcript of Undocumented Students
Federal Programs and Aid
Implications for Student Affairs
Programs and Aid
12 million undocumented immigrants
Of that 1.8 million 18 years and younger
Breakdown by classification
22% Latin American
6% European and Canadian
3% African and other regions
Graduation rates of undocumented students
65,000 undocumented students graduate from high school each year
Only 5-10% actually pursue college
A foreign national who:
(1) entered the United States without inspection or with fraudulent documents; or
(2) entered legally as a non-immigrant but then violated the terms of his or her status and remained in the United States without authorization (as defined by the National Immigration Law Center).
Implications for Student Affairs
Abrego, L. (2008). Legitimacy, social identity, and the mobilization of law: The effects of assembly bill 540 on
undocument students in California. In Law and Social Inquiry, 33(3) pp. 709-734. Retrieved from www.williamperezphd.com/articles/abrego-2008.pdf
Dreams deferred: the cost of ignoring undocumented students. (2007). In Immigration Policy Center.
Retrieved March 11, 2014, from http://immigrationpolicy.org
Educators for Fair Consideration Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://facesforthefuture.org/PDF/E4FC_Fact_Sheet.pdf
Ellis, L. M., & Chen, E. C. (2013). Negotiating identity development among undocumented immigrant college students:
A grounded theory study. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(2), 251-264. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0031350
National Immigration Law Center. (2013). Basic facts about in-state tuition for undocumented immigrant students.
Retrieved from http://www.nilc.org/basic-facts-instate.html
Perez, W., Espinoza, R., Ramos, K., Coronado, H. M., Cortes, R. (2009). Academic resilience among undocumented
Latino students. In Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 31(2). Retrieved from http://online.sagepub.com
Saenz, V. B., Ponjuan, L. (2012). Latino males: Improving college access and degree completion – A new national
imperative. In Perspectivas: Issues in Higher Education Policy and Practice, Spring 2012(1).
Minnesota Office of Higher Education (2013) Retrieved from https://www.ohe.state.mn.us/mPg.cfm?pageID=1586
Russell, A. (2010). State policies regarding undocumented college students: A narrative of unresolved
issues, ongoing debate and missed opportunities. American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 1-10. Retrieved from https://www.aascu.org/workarea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=5075
The Dream act: creating economic opportunities. (2010). In Immigration Policy Center. Retrieved March
11, 2014, from http://immigrationpolicy.org
Student must have:
1. attended a school in the state for a certain number of years;
2. graduated from high school in the state; and
3. signed an affidavit stating that they have either applied to legalize their status or will do so as soon as eligible.
Not eligible for federal financial aid
Texas and New Mexico have enacted policies allowing access to state financial aid
Thalia Guerra, Kimberly Juwong, Jesus Romero
Have lived in the United States most of their lives
Have been brought to the United States by their parents at a young age
Have learned English
Have attended elementary, middle, and high school in the United States
Have excelled academically in high school and want to pursue a college education
Currently lack a way to become legal residents or citizens in the United States
Social Identity Concepts
Awareness and Advocacy
Continuous education regarding challenges for undocumented students, current laws, and policies
Knowledge of campus resources
Advocacy toward more inclusive policies and practices, greater access, and financial aid that addresses undocumented students' needs
Consideration of and sensitivity to students' social identity development and feelings of shame and uncertainty
Development of affinity groups and Latino student organizations
Development of mentoring programs
Advising and Career Services
Intrusive advising model
Intentional link between advising practices and career services
Development of internship and networking programs
Transitional programs - first year experience, bridge programs, etc.
Consideration for students' financial challenges and needs
Encourage students to seek outside funding sources
Redesigning financial aid to include undocumented students
Designated on-campus jobs for students
Most college-bound undocumented students:
"...because they fit somewhere between the first and second generations. They are not first-generation immigrants because they did not choose to migrate, but they also don't belong to the second generation because they were born and spent part of their childhood outside of the United States." -Roberto Gonzales
Best of Both Worlds
Students who accept both cultures are able to "live" in both worlds.
Rejection of Immigrant Ties
Students may develop feelings of shame and try to cut the ties of their immigrant culture. This can lead to a clash in family and cultural values.
“Sometimes I don’t like my culture. I really don’t, especially when I see women always being submissive to the male.” -Anonymous
1982 Supreme Court Decision
Ruling access to k-12
Denying students access to k-12 punishes kids
Plyer vs. Doe
Illegal Immigrant Reform and Responsibility Act 1996
Ambiguity w/ the law
Defining “residence” and “post secondary benefits”
Why is this important?
• Increased presence
• Better employment opportunities
• U.S. economy
Plyer vs. Doe
Illegal Immigration Reform and Responsibility Act 1996
Engaged in the American educational system, K-12 or for some summer migrant schools.
Often face greater barriers to educational achievement and success in the pursuit of a career
Current policies prohibit educational achievement leading to disengagement
In our research, a study was found that hypothesized that because undocumented
students face challenges and obstacles they are more likely to succeed in their studies.
In a qualitative study of 10 undocumented male Mexican college students, De Leon (2005) described relationships with school counselors and teachers as being particularly important sources of information and guidance. Students who were treated negatively reported an ongoing sense of isolation and fear. Although they faced many obstacles due to their status, they still expressed a high level of optimism and perseverance.
In another qualitative study focusing on undocumented female Mexican college students, Munoz (2008) reported that these young women had both positive and negative experiences with teachers and other school agents. Most of the information that students received came from the community members - not school staff.
Most undocumented students have feelings of helplessness, shame, and fear due to their status, but they also reported high levels of campus involvement, which gives them a sense of belonging. Support from faculty and staff are vital to their success.
Collaboration with high school admissions counselors
K-12 workshops, college visits
Tuition equity across all states
Increased attention to financial aid
Spanish publications/printed information
If the student is a citizen but their parents are undocumented they can still apply for aid.
Some states grant undocumented students state aid.
Scholarships for Latino Students
Scholarships for Undocumented Students
Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund
Scholarships for Hispanics
Page Education Foundation Scholarships
Students can apply for private loans, but they must have someone who is a legal resident co-sign.
(Development, Relief and Education of Alien Minors Act)
Provide opportunity to pursue higher education and U.S. citizenship.
15 or younger entering the U.S.
5 consecutive years in the U.S.
Graduate H.S., GED, or accepted into college
Between ages 12 and 35 when applying for the act
“Good moral character”
Conditional permanent residency (6 years)
Enlist in the military
Legal permanent residency
Keeps talented students in the U.S.
Helps the economy
Allows eligible undocumented youth to work legally without the fear of deportation
Can secure driver's licenses and apply for loans in some states
Does not provide permanent legal status but can be renewed
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA)
“Luis comes from an economically disadvantaged background but has not let this hold him back from exploring different opportunities to improve himself. His family of six is financially supported by his father and they all live in a one-room studio apartment in Grand Rapids. Neither of his parents have a college education; only his father finished high school. Despite family hardships, Luis continues to pursue his dream of going to college, as a means of overcoming his current personal circumstances. Luis knows that college will present challenging opportunities but he is an excellent student with great self-discipline and lots of motivation."
As professionals in higher education it is our duty to get to know our students and provide as much support as possible to ensure the success of our students. From the presentation and what you may personally know about undocumented students what are some services you could provide to Luis?