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6.1. Mature colonies, imperial crisis
Transcript of 6.1. Mature colonies, imperial crisis
pre-Hispanic and Colonial periods
University of California, Santa Barbara
Prof. Juan Cobo, firstname.lastname@example.org
Unit 6: Crisis and reform
HSSB 4224, Mondays and Fridays 10:30 am -12:30 pm,
and by appointment.
Housekeeping and announcements:
Turn OFF your cell phone.
You may use a computer ONLY for taking notes. Surfing the web, checking social media, etc. distract not just you but also those seated around you.
Come on time.
If you must leave before the end of class, let me know IN ADVANCE and leave quietly.
Use the restroom IN ADVANCE.
I won't go beyond our allotted time. Do NOT pack up early.
I encourage you ask questions from the floor during lecture. Just raise your hand.
Class 1: Mature colonies, imperial crisis
Profound changes in the relationship between the crown and its American subjects
The broad view: mature colonies, imperial crisis, or
Eighteenth-century developments in America and Europe
Reforms introduced by the Crown and their consequences
The final exam will take place on FRIDAY, December 15th, from 12:00 to 3:00 PM, in Girvetz 2115.
The optional papers will be due at the same time.
If you are writing a paper, I need to see an outline TODAY or on MONDAY.
Anglo-Spanish War (1585-1604)
1588, failed invasion of England ("Spanish Armada").
1589, failed attempt to expel Spain from Portugal ("English Armada")
1596, English take Spanish port of Cádiz.
1596 and 1597, failed invasions of England...
Merged with conflict with the Dutch and France
Aggressive foreign policy funded by New World wealth.
Even then, crown defaults on its debts 1557, 1575, 1596, and 1607.
Meanwhile, on the mainland...
Growing wealth, power, and influence of New World population, especially
Changing fortunes in the Caribbean
Privateers and pirates had long been an issue, preying on Spanish settlements and treasure ships.
But from 1590s, growing numbers of foreigners.
Spain beginning to panic, e.g. abandoning north-western Hispaniola.
Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)
Initially conflict between Protestants and Catholics in the German Lands, but soon turned into broader French-Habsburg conflict.
Profound consequences for the Spanish empire in the Caribbean, because foreigners were able to make serious inroads into the region.
Detail. Antonis Mor, Portrait of Philip II in Armour, 1557.
Monasterio de San Lorenzo el Real, El Escorial.
Main adversaries the Dutch, who revolted against Spanish rule in the 1560s, but also embroiled in French Wars of Religion and in conflict against Protestant England.
King of Spain (1556-1598) and Portugal (from 1580).
The Invincible Armada, National Maritime Museum, London
Aggressive taxation of Castilian peasantry and sale of royal and church lands drove people out of the countryside and into towns.
Disastrous consequences for Spanish (peninsular) economy.
By 1600, importing staple grains.
1621, Dutch found their West India Company (WIC).
1628 WIC captures entire Spanish treasure fleet carrying six million pesos: 170,000 kg of silver.
1624, English take San Cristóbal (now St Kitt's), in the Leeward Islands.
1627, English take Barbados, in the Windward Islands.
1634, Dutch take the Isla de la Curación (now Curaçao).
1635, French take Guadalupe and Martinica (now Guadeloupe and Martinique), in the Leewards.
1655, English under Cromwell take Jamaica.
1655, French under Louis XIV send governor to Tortuga, off the coast of Hispaniola, and begin to settle NW Hispaniola itself, resulting in the creation of Saint-Domingue.
Treaty of Ryswick, 1697
Criollos soon outnumber peninsulares in the New World, and by an ever growing margin.
1570, Mexico, they almost double peninsulares (11,000 to 6,000).
1646, 14,000 peninsulares to 170,000 criollos.
Increasingly involved in the colonial administration, at every level.
Over the seventeenth century, dominating local government.
Later dominating Audiencia posts too. By 1750, 50% of oidores criollos.
Aided by royal policy of selling offices.
Not automatic opposition, but certainly changing colonial relationship, largely as a result of economic and demographic growth of Spanish America.
(As we saw in Unit 4:)
Sale of offices
1559, beginning of royally approved sale of offices in Spanish America (notarial positions).
1560s, sale of positions in mints of New Spain and Peru.
1591, sale of town council positions.
1606, royal decree authorising sale of almost all lo cal offices, in perpetuity.
1630s, sale of treasury positions.
1640s, sale of lower rungs of office in Council of the Indies
1677, sale of corregimientos (district governorships) permitted.
1687, sale of Audiencia positions (including the position of oidor) permitted.
Policy desperate and shortsighted...
... but the result was emergence of a new colonial relationship, based less and less on impositions from the center and increasingly on negotiation.
Discrepancy between mining that was reported and taxed, and what was not.
Boom in export-directed agriculture, especially in new areas.
Development of internal markets and "economic zones".
Inter-American trade expanding at the expense of trade with Spain and Spanish trading monopolies.
Trend, as in government, towards at least a limited self-determination.
Treasury receipts collapse, while expenses increase:
Growing cost of defense
Greatest expense defense.
1618-1621, New Spain's government sends 1.1 million pesos to Spain in taxes,
but 1.6 million to Manila
Defense of Caribbean port of Cartagena (New Granada) alone costs >20m over 18th century.
Mexico: 1600-1610, 10 million pesos; 1690-1700, 2.7m
New Granada: 1600-1610, 1.3 million; 1685-1700, 48,000.
Peru: 1600-1610: 8.3m; 1680-1690, 1.3m.
(Source: Bakewell 2004; all figures approximate)
On one hand, a growing, increasingly wealthy, confident, and assertive American-born population, keen to involve itself in administration and governance, and increasingly able to do so through the purchase of offices facilitated by a weak crown.
On the other, an increasingly poor, beleaguered crown, under attack from imperial rivals, and governing over an increasingly impoverished peninsular population.
The double-edged sword of American prosperity
How to resolve this?
The crown's dilemma
6.1. Mature colonies, imperial crisis
Source: TePaske 2010, p. 6.
Source: TePaske 2010, p. 16.
The disparity in figures
1700 - Charles II, the last Habsburg king of Spain dies without an heir.
Result the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1715), which pits most European powers against each other for control of the Spanish monarchy.
How to resolve this?
By 1706, every major Spanish city in the peninsula (including Madrid) is occupied by Charles II's enemies.