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Learning Theory in the Context of Time

a timeline of learning theory incl. development of behaviourist/cognitivist/humanist schools
by

Stuart Mitchell

on 2 November 2015

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Transcript of Learning Theory in the Context of Time

A response to behaviorism, people are not “programmed animals” that merely respond to environmental stimuli; people are rational beings that require active participation in order to learn, and whose actions are a consequence of thinking.
Behaviorism
Constructivism
Cognitivism
A Continuum of Learning
Novice Learners
Established Learners
Sophisticated Learners
Learners study fact based information
Learners make connections using fact based information
Learners use fact based information and knowledge of connections to create greater understanding of a content area
pavlov
skinner
maslow
bruner
piaget
bandura
vygotsky
schedules of reinforcement
gagne
the conditions of learning
"the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers" (Vygotsky, 1978, p86).
the spiral curriculum
ZPD & MKO
schema, equilibrium,
assimilation & accommodation
1890s
1900s
1910s
1920s
1930s
1940s
1950s
1960s
1970s
1980s
1990s
2000
onwards

classical conditioning
operant conditioning
thorndike
watson
Behaviourism
hierarchy of needs
social learning theory
rogers
unconditional positive regard
kolb
experiential learning
not translated into English until
cognitivist school
behaviourist school
the PC is to Piaget
as the WWW. is to Vygotsky
social learning theory
humanist school
gardner
multiple intelligences
constructivist school
The Zone of Proximal Development
Naturalistic
Spatial
Linguistic
Logical-mathematical
Bodily-kinesthetic
Musical
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Spatial
Linguistic
Logical-mathematical
Bodily-kinesthetic
Musical
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Naturalistic
Instruction should be well-organized. Well-organized materials easier to learn and to remember.

Instruction should be clearly structured. Subject matters are said to have inherent structures - logical relationships between key ideas and concepts - which link the parts together.

The perceptual features of the task are important. Learners attend selectively to different aspects of the environment. Thus, the way a problem is displayed is important if learners are to understand it.

Prior knowledge is important. Things must fit with what is already known if it is to be learnt.

Differences between individuals are important as they will affect learning. Differences in 'cognitive style' or methods of approach influence learning.

Cognitive feedback gives information to learners about their success or failure concerning the task at hand. Reinforcement can come through giving information - a 'knowledge of results' - rather than simply a reward.
well-organised
clearly structured
method of display
prior knowledge
differentiation
feedback
cognitivism is...
lave and wenger
communities of practice
sfard
mezirow
transformative learning
'acquisition' & 'participation' metaphors
dewey
experiential education
ausubel
meaningful learning
gestalt school
Principles of Grouping
knowles
andragogy
(Koffka, Köhler & Wertheimer)
Little Albert
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