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Learning Theory in the Context of Time
Transcript of Learning Theory in the Context of Time
A Continuum of Learning
Learners study fact based information
Learners make connections using fact based information
Learners use fact based information and knowledge of connections to create greater understanding of a content area
schedules of reinforcement
the conditions of learning
"the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers" (Vygotsky, 1978, p86).
the spiral curriculum
ZPD & MKO
assimilation & accommodation
hierarchy of needs
social learning theory
unconditional positive regard
not translated into English until
the PC is to Piaget
as the WWW. is to Vygotsky
social learning theory
The Zone of Proximal Development
Instruction should be well-organized. Well-organized materials easier to learn and to remember.
Instruction should be clearly structured. Subject matters are said to have inherent structures - logical relationships between key ideas and concepts - which link the parts together.
The perceptual features of the task are important. Learners attend selectively to different aspects of the environment. Thus, the way a problem is displayed is important if learners are to understand it.
Prior knowledge is important. Things must fit with what is already known if it is to be learnt.
Differences between individuals are important as they will affect learning. Differences in 'cognitive style' or methods of approach influence learning.
Cognitive feedback gives information to learners about their success or failure concerning the task at hand. Reinforcement can come through giving information - a 'knowledge of results' - rather than simply a reward.
method of display
lave and wenger
communities of practice
'acquisition' & 'participation' metaphors
Principles of Grouping
(Koffka, Köhler & Wertheimer)