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Morphology

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Phương Nguyễn

on 14 September 2016

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Transcript of Morphology

Contrastive
Linguistics

What is Morphology ?
CLASSIFICATION
OF
MORPHEMES
Morphology
Group 3 - LE40B:
1. Nguyễn Thị Kiều Oanh
2. Nguyễn Minh Phương
3. Nguyễn Ngọc Uyên Phương
4. Nguyễn Minh Trí
5. Nguyễn Lê Hạnh Vy

VIETNAMESE MORPHOLOGY
A
Vietnamese morpheme
is the smalles isolable unit in the linguistic structure which caries an independent meaning, forming by the repetition of that morpheme itself or some variants of that word.
In Vietnamese word may consist of a single morpheme or more than one morpheme
In linguistics, a
morpheme
is the smallest grammatical unit in a language, or we can know it as the smallest meaningful unit of a language.
We can see, it starts with “morph-” which mean the field of study that dedicated to morphemes is morphology.
However, a morpheme is not identical to a word. When a word can stand alone and show a meaning of it, a morpheme may or may not stand alone (free or bound).
Every word comprises one or more morphemes.
Morphology
is a term whose etymology is Greek: morph- means ‘shape, form’, so morphology is the study of form or forms.
Morphology
, in linguistics, is the study of the form of words, and the ways in which words are related to the other words of the same language. Formal difference among words serve a variety of purposes, from the creation of new lexical items to the indication of grammatical structures.
It refers to the mental system involved in word formation or to the branch 2 MORPHOLOGY and MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS of linguistics that deals with words, their internal structure, and how they are formed.
mouse
mice
cat
cats
Example
Morpheme
Example
UNTOUCHABLE
The word “Untouchable” comprises 3 morphemes
UN
TOUCH
ABLE
Morphology
Different from “mouse” and “mice”, are absolutely different in what they formed and how we pronoun..., we almost recognize that “cat” and “cats” are closely related, because they are only different than each other with the morpheme “-s”.
“Un-” is a bound morpheme so that it has to depend on the others to show a meaning, it signifying “not”.
“-touch-” is a free morpheme that considered to the root of this word, of course it has a meaning.
“-able” is a free morpheme signifying “can be done”.
Or in Chukchi, the wordừ "təmeyŋəlevtpəγtərkən" including 8 morpheme " t-ə-meyŋ-ə-levt-pəγt-ə-rkən " - means I had a bad headache

1. FREE MORPHEMES

A
free morpheme
is ‘one that can be uttered alone with meaning’. [Stageberg]
• A
free morpheme
‘can be used on its own’. [Richards, Platt & Weber]

Free morphemes
‘may stand alone as words in their own right, as well as enter into the structure of other words’. [Jackson]


2. BOUND MORPHEMES

• A
bound morpheme
‘cannot be uttered alone with meaning. It is always annexed to one or more morphemes to form a word’. [Stageberg]
• A
bound morpheme
‘is never used alone but must be used with another morpheme’. [Richards, Platt & Weber]

Bound morphemes
‘may occur only if they combine with another morpheme’. [Jackson]


BOUND MORPHEMES
and FREE MORPHEMES
1. BASES (or ROOTS)

A BASE
(also called
A ROOT
) is ‘that morpheme in a word that has the principal meaning’ [Stageberg]. It is the central morpheme, the basic part of a word. There are two kinds of bases:

-
A FREE BASE
is a base ‘which may be a word on its own right once the other morphemes have been stripped away’. [Jackson]



-
A BOUND BASE
is a base (i.e. it is the basic part of a word and has the principal meaning) which can never occur on its own but can only be joined to other bound morphemes.


2. AFFIXES

AN AFFIX
is a morpheme (usually a bound morpheme) ‘that occurs before or behind a base’ [Stageberg]

a. Classified according to their POSITION in words, affixes have three kinds:

• PREFIXES
appear before a base
.


• SUFFIXES
appear after a base.


• INFIXES
are inserted within words.

E.g. Sleep is a free morpheme which occurs as a word on its own and as a free base in sleepy , sleeping, unsleeping,sleeping-bag, etc.
E.g. the suffix –ing must be used after a verb form: drinking, riding, listening, etc.
E.g. system in unsystematic, accept in unaccepted, neighbor in neighborhood, etc.
E.g. The bound base of aquaplane, aquarium, aquatic, aqueous, aqueduct is aqua- or aque-
The bound base of suicide, patricide, matricide, infanticide is –cide.
E.g. unhappy, impolite, stepfather, co-worker, replay, etc.
E.g. looking, keeper, rainy, reasonable, childhood, etc.
E.g. speedometer
b. Classified according to their FUNCTION in words, affixes have two kinds:



INFLECTIONAL AFFIXES
, ‘which are always suffixes in English, perform a grammatical function; they are representatives of grammatical categories’. [Jackson]
The only eight inflectional suffixes in English are:

DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES
‘which may be prefixes or suffixes in English, have a lexical function; they create new wordsout of existing words or morphemes by their addition’. [Jackson]
Derivational affixes may be of two kinds:


- Class-changing derivational affixes change the word class of the words to which they are attached
- Class-maintaining derivational affixes do not change the word class of the words to which they are attached.
BASES (or ROOTS)
and AFFIXES
E.g. the inflectional noun plural morpheme is often shown in writing by adding –(e)s to the end of a singular noun
cat → cats /kæts/
pig pigs /pigz/
fox foxes /fɔksiz/
It is believed that /–s/, /–z/, /–iz/ are three allomorphs of the inflectional noun plural morpheme
VARIATIONS OF MORPHEMES
- ALLOMORPHS
An allomorph is ‘any of the different forms of a morpheme’. [Richards, Platt & Weber]
‘The
word
may be described as the basic unit of language. Uniting meaning and form, it is composed of one or more morphemes, each consisting of one or more spoken sounds or their written representatives.’ [Arnold]
A

word
is the smallest linguistic unit which can occur on its own in speech or writing.
The definition of a word is one of the most difficult in linguistics because the simplest word has many aspects:

1. It has a sound form



2. It has its morphological structure.



3. It may occur in different word forms








4. It has different syntactic functions and signal various meanings

WORD
E.g. the sound form of sleep is /sli:p/
E.g. there is only one free morpheme (also called a free base) in sleep
E.g. the plain form sleep has four inflected forms:
- sleeps
- sleeping
- slept (the past simple form)
- slept (the past participle form)
E.g. the present participle form sleeping can be used
- A verbal, which is part of the finite verb was sleeping in ‘The child was sleeping soundly’
- An adverbial, which is the adjunct of manner of stood in ‘He stood sleeping’
- An adjectival, which is the pre-nominal modifier of child in ‘a sleeping child’.
CLASSIFICATION
THE CLASSIFICATION OF WORDS
ACCORDING TO THEIR STRUCTURE
1. SIMPLE WORDS
consist of a single free base (= a free morpheme)
E.g. long, baby, calculate, field, octopus, etc.
2. COMPLEX WORDS
contain at least one bound morpheme as an immediate constituent
They fall into two groups:

a. Complex words–FB (free-base) have one free morpheme.

b. Complex words–BB (bound base) have a bound morpheme.

E.g. lion + –ess ‘female’ = lioness
sun + –y ‘having’ = sunny
short + –en ‘make’ = shorten
dis– ‘do the opposite of ’ + appear = disappear
un– ‘not’ + able = unable
re– ‘again’ + play =replay
E.g. pre- + -dict = predict
re- + -cur = recur
demo- + -cracy = democracy
con- + -tain = contain
cur(r)- + -ent = current
3. COMPOUND WORDS
have at least two free bases (free morphemes) with or without bound morphemes.
THE CLASSIFICATION OF WORDS ACCORDING TO THEIR WORD-FORMATION PROCESSES
1. COINAGE
is the creation of totally new words by:
inventing names for new products: nylon, aspirin, etc.
using specific brand names such as Vaseline or Frigidaire as the generic name for different brands of these types of products.
changing proper names of individuals or places to common nouns:

E.g.
- sandwich was named for the fourth Earl of Sandwich, who put his food between two slices of bread so that he could eat while he gambled
- robot was named after the mechanical creature in the Czech writer Karel Capek’s play R.U.R., the initials standing for ‘Rossum’s Universal Robot’
- jumbo was named after an elephant brought to the U.S by P.T.Barnum
2. BORROWING
is the process by which words in a language are borrowed from another. It is one of the most common processes in word formation.

3. BLENDING
is the fusion of two words into one, usually the first part of one word with the last part of another.

• from French: champagne, garage, beige, cafe, boutique, etc.
• from German: rucksack, kindergarten, etc.;
• from Italian: pasta, cantata, opera, concerto, piano, etc.;
• from Russian: vodka, bistro, etc.
from Japanese: geisha, soy, kimono, etc.
E.g. MOtor + hoTEL = MOTEL
SLIM + gymNASTICS = SLIMNASTICS
BReakfast + lUNCH = BRUNCH
NEWS + broadCAST = NEWSCAST
SMoke + fOG = SMOG
4. CLIPPING
is the process of cutting off the beginning or the end of a word, or both, leaving a part to stand for the whole (the full form).
5. ACRONYMY
is the process whereby a word is formed from the initials or beginning segments of a succession of words.
6. CONVERSION
is the process of shifting a word from one word class to another without adding an affix.
7. AFFIXATION
is the process by which an affix is added to a base to form a new word.


a. PREFIXATION is the addition of a prefix in front of a base

b. SUFFIXATION is the addition of a suffix at the end of a base
8. BACK-FORMATION
is the process of deriving words by removing what is thought to be a suffix from an existing word. Put simply, a back-formation is a shortened word created from a longer word.

9. COMPOUNDING
is the process of combining two or more existing words to form a new one.


E.g. Nouns: pop group, whistle-blower, date-rape
Adjectives: class-ridden, heart-breaking, homesick
Verbs: cold-shoulder, highlight, babysit
Adverbs: good-naturedly, however, nowadays
Pronouns : anyone, everything, nobody
Numerals: sixty-three, nine-tenths
Prepositions: as for, because of, next to
Semi-auxiliaries: be going to, had better, have got to
Conjunctions: except that,ratherthan, whenever
DEFINITION
WORD FORMATION
A.Simple words:

Most simple words in Vietnamese are monosyllabic: hoa (flower), cây (tree), vui (happy), ăn (eat), chơi (play), sách (book), bánh (cake),…
(The number of polysyllabic simple words: mồ hôi (sweat), cù lao (island) is relatively small.)
B.Reduplication words:



C.Compounds: There are 2 types of compounds in Vietnamese.

a.Coordinated compound word ( từ ghép đẳng lập):

Coordinate compounds are formed by two morphemes, neither of which modifies the other one, such as sách vở (books), giày dép (shoes), ăn uống (eat and dink),…

b.Subordinated compound word (từ ghép chính phụ):

Subordinate compounds are formed by two morphemes, one of which modifies the other one, such as hoa hồng (rose), hoa cúc (daisy), cây táo (apple tree), cây lê (pear tree), xe hơi (car), xe máy (motorbike),…

Compound words in Vietnamese are divided into three groups: compound nouns, compound verbs and compound adjectives.
Vietnamese language has been influenced by Chinese so word compounds in Vietnamese contain two or more Han-Viet words.

Ex: Ân nhân ( “nhân” mean human beings which is the major word, “ân” is the modifier for “nhân”)
Ái quốc (“ái”(love) is major word, “quốc” (nation) is the modifier for “ái”)

D.Affixation

Vietnamese has very limited affixation. Only prefixation and suffixation are attested. A few affixes are used along with reduplication. Many affixes are derived from Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary and learned part of the lexicon. Some examples (not an exhaustive list) follow.
COMPARE BETWEEN
ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY
AND
VIETNAMESE MORPHOLOGY
The Similarities
1.
Both English morphemes and Vietnamese morphemes are the
smallest unit of language
and
can not be divided into smaller parts.
2. They
both have affix
( prefix and suffix)
Some Vietnamese affix :
Some English affix:
3. They both have compound word
Vietnamese has 2 types of compound:
- Coordinate compounds : Coordinate compounds are formed by two morphemes, neither of which modifies the other one, such as sách vở (books), giày dép (shoes), ăn uống (eat and dink),…
- Subordinate compounds : Subordinate compounds are formed by two morphemes, one of which modifies the other one, such as hoa hồng (rose), hoa cúc (daisy), cây táo (apple tree), cây lê (pear tree)….
Many morphemes in this type may be regarded as affixes.
In English : compound words have at least 2 free bases ( free morpheme with or without bound morpheme)
Differences
1. Form a new word

Vietnamese: add affix to the certain morpheme and the new word will consist of at least 2 words.
English : add affix to the certain word and the new word is still a single word only.
Example:
Yêu -> đáng yêu
Love -> lovely
Quên -> khó quên
Forget -> unforgettable
Vui -> niềm vui
Happy -> happiness
Buồn -> nỗi buồn
Sad -> sadness
2. Vietnamese has the following tonal alternations ( or tonal ablaut ) which are used grammatically that English don’t have
3. English morpheme is not as concrete as Vietnamese morpheme

In English sometimes when we pronounce some sounds are lost and some are combined but it doesn’t happen with Vietnamese
- We can NOT read all morpheme in English clearly and separately but with Vietnamese , we can read all morpheme clearly and separately.
- English still do not have the phenomenon call “Elision”
It is omission of one or sounds ( such as vowel, consonant,...) in a word or phrase.
Ex: Thank you, live in
And in vietnamese can not do like that:
Ex: cảm ơn không thể là cảm mơn, lặng im không thể là lặng nghim.
THE END.
This is a specific type of word formation in Vietnamese. Vietnamese is among the languages in the world which most frequently use reduplicative.
Reduplication in Vietnamese is made by repeating entire syllable or one of its individual components such as rime, initial consonant sound, principle vowel or tone.
There are three types of reduplicative words:
-The first type is two components are totally same such as ”chuồn chuồn”, “xanh xanh”, “nao nao”, “nghiêng nghiêng”…
-The second type is reduplication of the rhythm. They have same components but different rhythm like “ đo đỏ”, “khe khẽ”, “trăng trắng”…
-The last one reduplicates the initial consonant sound such as “ sạch sành sanh”, “mập mạp”, “nô nức”…
To sum up, we can form many new words by reduplication. We can see them in literary or music work with literal and metaphor meanings.

Buồn trông cửa bể chiều hôm,
Thuyền ai thấp thoáng cánh buồm xa xa?
Buồn trông ngọn nước mới sa,
Hoa trôi man mác biết là về đâu?
Buồn trông nội cỏ rầu rầu,
Chân mây mặt đất một màu xanh xanh.
Buồn trông gió cuốn mặt duềnh
Ầm ầm tiếng sóng kêu quanh ghế ngồi​.
Kiều ở lầu Ngưng Bích _ Truyện Kiều (Nguyễn Du)
E.BORROWING:

Vietnamese borrowed a vast number of words. In Vietnamese, because of the Chinese and French domination, the borrowed vocabularies are mainly from those two countries. It was divided into two layers: Chinese origin and Indo-European origin. Such as: vitamin (vitamine), xà phòng (savon), mùi xoa (mouchoir), giang sơn,…
Vietnamese translated literally some vocabulary in Chinese and French into Vietnamese for necessary usage like: mít tinh (meeting), Xô Viết, ngạc nhiên,…
F.ACRONYMY:

The process whereby a word is formed from the initials or beginning segments of a succession of words.
G.CONVERSION:

The last way to form words in Vietnamese is conversion. It is the method to change the meaning of a word without changing its form. The original word and the new one have the same spelling and pronunciation but with different meaning.
Example:
In sentence “ con người có hai chân, hai tay”, “chân” has original meaning: a part of body. It has other meaning like “chân trong chính phủ” a position in an organization, “chân thủ quỹ” a job of a person.
Another example is “nhân”, it means human beings in “nhân dân”(citizen) but in ”hạt nhân”(core) it means “main or major”, it has another meaning like “nhân chia”( multiply divide).
From these examples above we can see that a word can be a verb, a noun or an adjective without change in spelling. In brief, by conversion we can form a new word with the same pronunciation but different meanings.
ABLAUT
Vietnamese has the following tonal alternations (or tonal ablaut) which are used grammatically:
Vietnamese also has other instances of alternations, such as consonant mutations and vowel ablaut. Different regional varieties of Vietnamese may have different types of alternations.
IMPLICATIONS
The aim of contrastive analysis between English and Vietnamese is to draw out the linguistic same and differences. However, it also has another valuable practical basis for teaching and learning. By contrasting those two languages, we can forecast the potential difficulties that the learners may encounter when learning foreign languages.

Firstly, Because of the differences in word order, Vietnamese pupils tend to produce error such as:





Secondly, when we want to mention the plural forms of nouns in Vietnamese, we usually use the word "những" before nouns such as: những cô gái, những chàng trai. That is the point. In English, we must add -s or -es behind countable nouns,
for example: girls, boys¦ and preserve the uncountable nouns. Therefore, Vietnamese learners have a tendency to "forget" the -s and -es for countable nouns and vice versa for uncountable nouns.
This also elucidates the reasons why Vietnamese pupils misuse two words "many" and "much" for countable and uncountable nouns.
"room dinning" instead of "dinning room", which means "phòng ăn" in Vietnamese
"pie apple" instead of "apple pie", which in Vietnamese it is "bánh táo".
This error often happened in compound noun.
Thirdly, in Vietnamese, we can say "Chim đang hót" without any determiners. This sentence conveys the full meaning and is grammatical right. Otherwise, if we apply this rule in to English, which requires the determiners for noun, it is completely wrong. We cannot say "Bird is singing" (the right sentence should be "The bird is singing").

Finally, I want to emphasize that, besides the methods of teaching and learning, the syllabus, one of the major causes of the above errors is the differences in English and Vietnamese, or we can call it the linguistic cause.
4. They both
BORROWING
borrowed some words from other language . It is one of the most common processes in word formation.
5. They both have words that have many
differences meanings.
6. They both have
ACRONYMY

ACRONYMY is the process whereby a word is formed from the initials or beginning segments of a succession of words.
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