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History of Ceramics
Transcript of History of Ceramics
As early as 24,000 B.C. the earliest signs of ceramics were founded in Czechoslovakia in the forms of animal and human figurines, slabs, and balls.
Around 9,000 B.C., the first people to make bricks and vessels out of clay were the Jomon people from Japan.
In 3,000 B.C. the first pottery wheels were invented in Mesopotamia.
It was invented to simplify the process of making pottery so that while switching to one side to another a person did not have to get up and walk around.
Around 550-480 B.C. Athenian Attica potters perfect black figure style decoration and subsequently red figure.
Around 8,000- 5,000 B.C., glazes were discovered in Egypt when Calcium Oxide and soda on overheating pots resulted in coloring.
Read more: http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ab98#ixzz3mOLfzY1B
In 600-800 A.D., Chinese T'ang Dynasty potters developed porcelain.
Between the 9th and 12th centuries A.D., Islamic potters in Mesopotamia developed tin enamel glazes.
14th- 17th Century A.D., Europe (especially Italy and Holland) picks up on the glaze techniques of the east.
A short history of how ceramics transformed from something purely functional to something beautifully artistic.
In the mid 1200's, German potters developed a stoneware clay body.
In the 1700's, Josiah Wedgwood developed a black stoneware and a white stoneware.
Venus of Dolní Věstonice
Egyptian pre-dynastic black top vessel
Black and red figure vessel
T'ang Dynasty vase
9th century tin glazed bowl
Dutch tin enamel glazed plate
German stoneware jug
Wedgwood black and white stoneware
Man using early form of potter's wheel
Fact: Clay is a product of nature, all you need is Earth, Fire, Air and Water.
Glaze is made from silica, alumina, and flux.
Clay: There are 3 main types of clay earthenware, stoneware, and porcelain.
The process of shaping clay on a wheel
Types of Hand building:
Pinch pots, coil pots, slab pots.
Kilns: There are 3 main types of
Gas, Wood, And Electric.
INTO THE FIRE
Tanaka Chojiro, one of a family of Korean potters living in Japan, is making bowls of a very recognizable kind. They are moulded by hand rather than thrown on a wheel, so their shape is uneven. They have a thick lead glaze, usually dark in tone but sometimes dappled or enlivened with a flash of colour. They seem primitive, but their apparently accidental beauty is of a kind to excite a connoisseur. They are perfect for the Tea Ceremony.
One such bowl is shown in 1588 to the influential Tea Master of the warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi. The Tea Master awards its makers a gold seal inscribed with the single word raku ('felicity'). The bowls have found their name. And the Tea Ceremony has its best-known ware.
Read more: http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?groupid=2157&HistoryID=ab98>rack=pthc#ixzz3n3ds6iyB
Kakiemon porcelain: 17th century
In the following century Japan makes another major contribution to the history of ceramics. In about 1644 Sakada Kakiemon, a member of a family of potters with kilns at Arita in northwest Kyushu, introduces to Japan the Chinese system of overglaze painting. In the 1670s his two sons, known as Kakiemon II and Kakiemon III, are producing exquisite wares of milky white porcelain, often square or hexagonal in shape, decorated with elegant and brightly coloured motifs of plants and birds. The decoration, covering relatively little of the surface, stands out with a special intensity against the white background.
Read more: http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?groupid=2157&HistoryID=ab98>rack=pthc#ixzz3n3eRBCwn
Slip and Under glaze